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[ There are numerous
Anti-Masonry literature and most of them are also Anti-Semitic in character.
Those literature are bad in taste, inaccurate in history, irrational in nature,
but all of them exude venom. The Protocols of
the Wise Men of Zion, also known as The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
had gained some popularity, even though the same has been false in numerous
particulars, besides being clumsy plagiarism.
Freemasonry was sought to be discredited by falsely alleging, that there is a
conspiracy and unholy alliance between Freemasonry and Jews to conquer the power
in the world. The learned Author, who is a distinguished Masonic Scholar
analyses such pieces of Anti-Masonry literature and demonstrates not only the
hollowness, but also the falsity of all of them. Please read on . . . ]
Protocols of the Elders of Zion"--Anti-Masonry and Anti-Semitism
R.W.Bro.Leon Zeldis, A.G.M, Editor, The Israeli Freemason
More than once in the course of the
last two centuries, anti-Masonry has been fused with an older hatred, hatred of
the Jews, that is to say anti-Semitism. Probably, the irrational nature of both
phobias facilitates their juxtaposition. Be that as it may, from the middle of
the 19th Century, we are witnessing an increasing wave of simultaneously
anti-Semitic and anti-Masonic propaganda. Possibly, the paradigmatic work of
this class of "literature" is an opuscule entitled "The
Protocols of the Wise Men of Zion"
sometimes also known as "The
Protocols of the Elders of Zion."
This is one of the most well-known
literary falsifications in history, based on plagiarism and fraud from the very
beginning of its gestation. Nevertheless, this swindle has captivated the
imagination of many people, who are sensible in other respects and it has been
transformed into the "source of indispensable information" in the
baggage of all the anti-Semites and anti-Masons.
In this work, we will examine the history of this fraud, will
demonstrate its absolute falsification and we will take a look at the lamentable
consequences that it has had in modern history, as much of the point of view of
the Jewish people, as of Freemasonry.
Sources of information
In the preparation of this work, I depended mainly on the works of three
investigators. Professor Jose Antonio Ferrer Benimeli,
who in his book "The
Judeo-Masonic-Communist Conspiracy", dedicates
a long chapter to the subject that occupies pages. 135-210);
Antonio Ferrer Benimeli, El Contubernio
Judeo-Masónico-Comunista, Ediciones Istmo, Madrid, 1982.]
Norman Cohn, author of "Justification for Genocide", where
it makes a history of the antecedents of the Protocols, its evolution and its
Cohn, Warrant for Genocide (The myth of the
Jewish world-conspiracy and the Protocols of the Elders of Zion),
Eyre & Spottiswoode, London, 1967.] and
Herman Bernstein, author of "The truth on the 'Protocols of Zion” where
it not only relates the history of the mystification, but reproduces the
complete text of the book of Joly (pp. 75-258), the text of the news articles,
that appeared in the London Times (pp. 259-264), the complete text of the Protocols
(pp. 295-359) and other
[Herman Bernstein, The
Truth about the "Protocols of Zion" - A complete Exposure,
Covici-Friede, New York, 1935.],
Also, I consulted other works to
clarify or to add certain details, as the book "Must
men hate?" of the
North-American lawyer Sigmund Livingston,
who was the first President of the Anti Defamation League of B'nai-B'rith, and
who in his book adds an interesting personal testimony (pp. 39-49) to the
meticulous relation presented by the authors mentioned before. All these works
are included in detail in the notes. [Sigmund
Livingston, Must Men Hate?,
Crane Press, Cleveland, 1944]
The connection of anti-Masonry and anti-Semitism does not begin with the
Protocols . Already
on the occasion of the Dreyfus affair, that began in 1894 and continued
intermittently until 1906, the French press and also that of other countries
connected the Judaism of Dreyfus with the Freemasonry of many of his more loyal
defenders.[ Professor Ferrer Benimeli
cites the publication entitled "Jews and Masons" in La Lectura
Dominical of 27 February 1898. op. cit., p.138, note 4.] Still
Agustin Barruel in his "Memory to serve the
History of Jacobinism”, [5
volumes, London, 1797] blamed
Freemasonry (confusing it with the Illuminati of Bavaria) of being instrumental
of the French Revolution (and also of being the heirs of the Templars). Although
Barruel did not find historical data to allow him to extend his attack including
the Jews (between the famous French revolutionaries there were no Jews), other
later authors were not so punctilious, and did not have scruples in inventing
what did not exist in reality.
Numerous books published before and after the Protocols
maintain that Judaism is at the origin of Freemasonry. We will mention Monsignor Leon Meurin, Archbishop of
Port-Louis, Mauritius, who
published in 1893 a book entitled "La Franc-Maçonnerie,
Synagogue de Satan." The author says on page 260: "Everything in Freemasonry is
fundamentally Jewish, exclusively Jewish, enthusiastically Jewish, from the
beginning to the end.” [Cited by
Cohn, op. cit., p. 48.]
The historical truth, that can be found in any serious work on the
history of Freemasonry, is that lodges were exclusively Christian in their
origin, and only with the creation of the Grand Lodge of London (1717) began the
process of de-Christianization, that culminated in 1813. At the time of the
union of the two rival Grand Lodges of England, when the United Grand Lodge of
England and Wales was created and rituals were again revised, eliminating from
them the last remaining Christian symbolisms, the institution transformed into
the universal vocation that we now know.
It is worthwhile, as a side
commentary, to remember that until today some Grand Lodges (especially in the
Scandinavian countries, that practice the Swedish Rite) do not admit people, who
do not profess the Christian religion.
Furthermore, even in those
countries where Jews and members of other religions are welcome in Masonic
lodges, other Masonic bodies are closed before them, exclusively reserved to
Christian Masons. As examples (there are many others), I will mention the
"high degrees" of the York rite, such as the Red Cross of Constantine,
the Knights of Malta and the Knights Templar.
Supreme Councils also consider that the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite is an
exclusively Christian rite, and do not accept the entrance of Jews or members of
other religions (for instance the Supreme Councils of England, Scotland, Ireland
and Australia). Their selectivity reaches a point, that the candidates must
declare to believe not only in the Christian faith, but also in the Holy
The Protocols appeared
for the first time in 1905, in Tsarskoe Selo, a summer resort near Saint
Petersburg, Russia (still imperial Russia, under the government of the Czar
Nicholas II). The author, indicated in the first edition, was a person who was
successively lawyer, judge and Greek Orthodox
monk called Sergei Alexandrovich Nilus (1862-1930).
Originally, the Protocols
appeared as a simple appendix in the second edition of a Nilus' book
entitled "Velikoe v Malom"
(The Great thing in the Small thing). As it was common at that time, the book
also bears a long subtitle, that in this case is quite dreadful: "The
Antichrist as a near political possibility."
This subtitle refers to
the appendix just mentioned.
In the diverse editions that followed
(1911, 1912, 1917 and 1919, always in Russian), Nilus offers different
explanations for how the manuscript of the Protocols
had arrived at his hands, stressing that he only had made the translation into
Russian. Other editions and translations, published by other people, related
different stories on the origin of the document.
One of the most frequent "added
explanations" to the Protocols
is that they are the
"secret minutes" of the First Zionist Congress held in Basel in 1897,
summoned by Dr. Theodor Herzl. The argument developed in the document is that
the Jews conspire to control all the governments of the world, to destroy
Christian civilization and to become masters of the Earth. The Protocols
provide details on the methods that would be used to reach these objectives.
Freemasonry would be the tool used by the "Elders of Zion" to deceive
humanity and soon to dominate it.
Let us begin by making clear that
an organization like the "Wise of Zion" or the "Elders of
Zion" never existed. Nevertheless, and without a shred of evidence to prove
it, it has been stubbornly maintained that these Protocols
were the minutes of this
Let us examine the form of the Protocols.
The first thing that draws
the attention of the objective reader is that this text does not keep any
similarity to any protocol that was read. A protocol is minutes, that is to say, the relation of what happened in
a meeting. It mentions a place, the date, the hour in which the meeting starts,
who presides over it, generally the names of those, who are present and of those
who excused their absence, and briefly the description of the debates, who
intervened and sometimes in very summarized form, what was said and what
resolutions were approved. Finally, there is a time of closing of the meeting,
and the signatures of those who guarantee the veracity of the minutes. None of
these exists in the Protocols,
which we are dealing with. The only "signature" is simply a line
that says "Signed by the representatives of Zion of Degree 33."
Furthermore, in these "protocols" one listens to only one
single voice. These are monologues or lectures, harangues we could say, without
making any attempt to make it appear as a debate or the intervention of several
people. It is
a sad commentary on the credulity or the malevolence of those readers who have
been ready to accept a text of this nature like real "protocols." Going
into the content, the absurdity of a supposed criminal plan prepared by a group
that pretends to control the mass media of the entire world ... but is incapable
of preventing the repeated publication of its plans is laughable. May I quote
Lugones writes, in the introduction to the Spanish edition of the
commentary of Father Pierre Charles, S.J., on the Protocols:
is enough, in effect, having an average discernment ... to understand that this
is a pamphlet (The Protocols)
as malignant as imbecile." [R.P.
Pierre Charles, Los Protocolos de los Sabios de Sion, Buenos Aires,
1954. The original work of R.P. Charles appeared in the Nouvelle Revue Théologique
of January 1938.]
gestation of the Protocols
The book of Nilus was not first in proclaiming the existence of a Jewish
conspiracy for world-wide domination. It was preceded by several authors,
especially one German called Hermann Goedsche, who in 1868 wrote a novel under the pseudonym "Sir John Retcliffe,"
One of the chapters of this fiction book describes a macabre scene in the Jewish
cemetery of Prague, where once every one hundred years, representatives of the
12 tribes of Israel meet with the demon in person. (Goedsche apparently
ignored that 10 of the 12 tribes "were lost" in the mists of history
over two thousand five hundred years back). The representatives of the
Jewish tribes inform Satan of the progress of their plans and ask for his
infernal aid for the continuation of their criminal projects. This anti-Semitic
fantasy was quickly reproduced as a pamphlet, not as fiction, but as a document
whose authenticity was guaranteed by the "famous English nobleman, Lord
Retcliffe." This, as we just saw, was only the pseudonym of the German
writer Goedsche. The first translation was done in Saint Petersburg in
1872, published under the title "In the Jewish Cemetery of the Czech Prague (the Jews sovereigns of
the World)." In 1876, a new publication
appeared in Moscow. In 1880, a second edition and new printings appeared in
Odessa and Prague. (Cohn, op. cit., p.
In France, the writer Gougenot des Mousseaux also
made use of this subject in his book "Le
Juif, le judaïsme et la judaïsation des peuples chrétiens"
(Paris, 1869), where he accuses the Jewish "Kabbalists" of trying to
seize the world.
His follower, Father
Chabauty, curate of San Andrés
in Mirebeau, in Poitou, published in 1881, "Les Francs-Maçons et les
Juifs: Sixième Age de l'Eglise d'après l'Apocalypse,"
in which he maintained that Satan, by means of the Judeo-Masonic conspiracy, was
preparing the way for the Jewish Antichrist and the domination of the world by
Jews.( Cohn, op. cit., p. 45.)
Approximately at the same
time, in the 1880's, in Italy, Pope Leo XIII was engaged in a ferocious
fight against Italian Freemasonry. Although he himself did not descend to
make anti-Semitic propaganda, he did allow others to do it. The Jesuit
fathers associated with the publication of the journal "Civiltá
Cattolica," particularly considered perfectly legitimate to discredit
Freemasonry presenting it as part of a Jewish world-wide conspiracy. Two of
these, Reverend Fathers, R. Ballerini and F.S. Rondina, lead a campaign that
lasted until the beginning of the 1890s (Cohn, op. cit., p. 47.)
Finally, we must mention that the
first appearance of a text very similar to the Protocols, but somewhat abbreviated, appeared in the
(the Flag) of Saint Petersburg between August 26 and September 7 of of 1903
(that is to say, preceding by two years the publication of Nilus)."Znamya"
was published by a well-known anti-Semite, P.A. Krushevan, whose
associate was G.V. Butmi, of whom we will hear more further on. Krushevan maintained that the text he published was the translation of a document
written originally in France, and that the translator had entitled it "Minutes
of the Universal World-wide Meeting of Masons and the Elders of Zion”.( Cohn, op.
cit., pp. 65-66.)
immediate objective of the Protocols
The Protocols were used
for the first time in Russia to foment hatred towards Jews. Its immediate
objective was to undermine the political influence and the position of Count
Witte, at that time the most important minister of the Czarist government.
(Livingston, op. cit., p. 40.)
Witte was a person of great
culture and amplitude of views, confidant of the Czar, who yearned to introduce
an enlightened and modern imperial policy. Because the wife of Witte was of
Jewish origin, the generalized opinion was that he favored the Jews of Russia,
who had undergone persecutions and discrimination during centuries. The
political opponents of Witte, headed by Grand Duchess Isabel Feodorovna Romanov
(1864-1918, older sister of the Empress Alexandra), did everything possible to
discredit him before the leading class and the royal family. One of his more
ferocious enemies was George V. Butmi de Katzman, whose name appears to be
connected with the publication of the Protocols.
On January 8 of 1935, a Catholic priest called Father Gleb E. Werchobsky,
was interviewed in Chicago by the writer Sigmund Livingston, who had already
published an article denouncing the falsification of the Protocols.
( Livingston, op. cit.,
p. 40.) Father Werchobsky
wanted to hand to Livingston a certain information, unknown until then, based on
his own personal experience. Father
Werchobsky confirmed the veracity of his report to Livingston in a sworn
affidavit. Later, Livingston published the complete details of this interview
in his book "Must Men
Hate?" as already mentioned.
Father Werchobsky had been born in
Saint Petersburg, Russia, on October 23 of 1888. He had been ordained in
Constantinopolis (today Istanbul) on July 13 of 1914. Later he emigrated to the
United States, where he stayed in several places until arriving in Chicago in
1929. There, he continued to fulfill his pastoral duties within the frame of the
Catholic Church. His father was Eugene I. Werchobsky and his mother Maria C. von
Stein. George Butmi de Katzman, an old lieutenant in the Imperial Guard of
Russia, was a friend of the family. Immediately
after the Dreyfus affair in France, Butmi traveled to Paris. When he returned
to Saint Petersburg, he brought several manuscripts that he requested to
translate into Russian. The translation was made by the wife of Butmi and the
mother of Father Werchobsky. This
was the translation that soon appeared under the name "The
Protocols of the Elders of Zion." In his sworn declaration,
Father Werchobsky declared that the "Protocols" were a fraud
and a falsification, and that he made his declaration (to Livingston) for the
sake of the truth. Also, he added that he knew personally several of the people
involved in the publication of the document, including a Sergei F. Sharapoff,
director of the weekly magazine "Russky Trud" ("The
Russian Toil"), a publication particularly antagonistic to Count Witte.
The group ferociously fought against
Count Witte's attempt to introduce in Russia the gold standard, to attract
foreign investments. Witte inclined to form an alliance with France, whereas
their opponents wanted to ally themselves with Germany. It was well known that
Count Witte wanted to improve the conditions of life of the Jews in Russia, and
that he proposed to cancel certain repressive laws. The publication of the "Protocols"
was used to undermine his influence on the Czar and the royal family.
Mr. Lucien Wolf, in
his article "The Trivialities of
Nilus," summarized the explanations offered by Nilus on
the origin of the document published as the "Protocols”
"According to an explanation, he obtained the Protocols
from a late friend, who had received them from a woman, who also passed away and
who stole them from one of the most influential and high leaders of Freemasonry
... . According to the other, there was not an intermediary woman, and no
robbery to a French Freemason, but that all the matter was executed by the late
friend himself, who made a search in the Central offices of the Society of Zion
in France ... . In the third enlarged edition of his work, published in 1911,
... he tells us that the documents did not arrive from France, but from
Switzerland, that were not Judeo-Masonic, but Zionist, and that these were the
secret protocols of the Zionist Congress held in Basel in 1897."
From all these testimonies,
the most likely conclusion is that the Protocols in their French
version were prepared by the agents of the Okrana in Paris, who gave the
manuscript to Butmi and he then gave it to Nilus, whose status as a monk would
give more prestige to the publication.
Although the illustrated Russian leaders did not really believe in
the veracity of the Protocols,
it was useful to them in order to foment hatred of the Jews.
Something on the Zionist Congress of Basel
Since some writers insist on
attributing the Protocols
to the first Zionist Congress, summoned by Dr. Theodor Herzl, it
is not out of place to give some explanations about this congress, its true
object and its resolutions, all of which is amply documented in historical form.
The Zionist movement founded by
Herzl and a few supporters, was simply a call to the Jewish people to return to
its ancestral fatherland, Judea (erroneously called Palestine by the Romans),
which by the end of the 19th Century still was part of the Ottoman Empire. The
main objective was to solve the "Jewish problem" of the European
countries, especially, by means of the emigration of the Jews. In Palestine, the
Jews would return to work in agriculture, building and other activities that had
been forbidden to them during hundreds of years in their places of dispersion.
The word "Zionism" was coined by the journalist Nathan Birnbaum, who
used it in his magazine “Autoemancipation”
on April 1st, 1890.
The first world-wide Zionist Congress
took place in the Swiss city of Basel, on the days 29, 30 and 31 of August of
1897. The centenary of the Congress was celebrated not long ago. The
deliberations took place at the Municipal Casino of Basel in six sessions,
beginning the first at 9 a.m. and the second at 3 p.m. in each of the three days
that the Congress lasted. The languages used were Hebrew and German, and the
minutes of the Congress (a volume of several hundreds of pages) was also
published in these two languages.
Among the delegates to the Congress
came delegates from most of the European countries (but not from Spain or
Portugal). From the Arab countries, only 10 delegates arrived from Algeria. None
from countries like Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Yemen, despite the fact that great
and old Jewish communities existed there. From America, only four delegates
arrived from the United States, and there was no representative from the rest of
the American countries.
The true resolutions of the First Zionist Congress were the creation of
an organism (the World Zionist Organization) to put into practice the Zionist
program, the creation of a National Fund to buy land in Palestine, to dry
marshes, to construct roads and to plant forests, and the decision to continue
to meet in periodic form in Zionist Congresses that would constitute the maximum
authority of the Zionist movement.
truth is revealed
In 1921, a journalist of the Times newspaper of London, Philip Graves,
who was then in Constantinopolis (Istanbul), found a worn copy of a French book
entitled "Dialogues in Hell between Machiavelli and
Montesquieu, or the Policy of Machiavelli in the 19th Century."
The author was anonymous ("By a Contemporary") and the printing was
done in the press of A. Mertens and Sons in Brussels, in 1864. The book,
as the staff members of the Times quickly discovered, had been written in
1858 by Maurice Joly, a French lawyer. In his novel, in the form of a
dialogue beyond the grave between Montesquieu and Machiavelli, Joly attacked
Napoleon III. The result was that Joly was locked up in prison for 15 months.
Graves immediately realized the
extraordinary similarity between these Dialogues and the Protocols
of Nilus. There were whole paragraphs that had been copied literally, mutatis
mutandis by the change between dialogue and monologue. Graves had made a
discovery of a greatest importance. In three long articles,(
These articles were previously published as a pamphlet entitled “The
Truth about the Protocols, a literary fraud”) published in the Times of
London on the 16, 17 and 18 of August of 1921, Graves revealed the truth
about the falsification of the Protocols.
Graves demonstrated that Nilus had simply plagiarized the Dialogues of Joly,
changing the original and adding some material (partly copied from Goedsche) to
serve his intentions.
Many revelations with respect to the
fraudulent document were published later. In 1933, a paragraph-by-paragraph
comparison of the texts of Joly and Nilus was published, demonstrating their
similarity or identity. Another comparison appears in the appendix of "Questions
and answers with respect to the Jews," published by the
Anti-Defamation League of B'nai-B'rith. In the book of Professor Ferrer Benimeli,
already mentioned before, there is a comparison of select paragraphs, that
occupies 8 pages (pp. 157-164), demonstrating the parallelism between both
Although the Catholic Church has not
been generally characterized by its affection either towards Masons or towards
Jews, it is a remarkable fact that one of the revelations of the absolute
falsification of the Protocols
was written by the R.P. Pierre Charles, S.J., published in the "Nouvelle
Revue Théologique" of Belgium in January of 1938.(
A Spanish translation was published as a pamphlet in Buenos Aires in 1954)
Kindly take note of the date, we are in Europe on the eve of World War II, the
totalitarian regimes of Hitler and Franco (and in smaller degree, Mussolini) has
triggered a violent anti-Semitic and anti-Masonic campaign. All those who
followed the development of these events realized that war was imminent, and
that the German military power would squash its neighbors, including Belgium.
Father Charles must have been a man of an exceptional courage, integrity
and love of his fellow men, to dare publishing at that time his rebuttal of the Protocols.
Also his superiors, who authorized the publication, displayed a sense of justice
and humanity very scarce in the Europe of those years.
Although within the frame of this article it is impossible to make a
meticulous comparison between the original French of Joly and the fraudulent
version of Nilus, I will give a few select paragraphs to give an idea of what we
are speaking about. Those interested can consult the work of
Professor Ferrer Benimeli (Ferrer
Benimeli, op. cit., pp. 157-166)
or some of the works mentioned at the beginning, where many paragraphs are
mentioned showing the parallelism between both works.
of Joly, p. 75:
I will organize, for
example, immense financial monopolies, reserves of the public wealth, on which
the fate of all private wealth will depend so closely, that they will be
absorbed with the credit of the State the day after every political catastrophe.
You are an economist, Montesquieu; weigh the value of this combination.
of Nilus, p. 42:
Very soon we will organize
enormous monopolies--colossal reserves of wealth--in which the wealth of the
Christians, even the great ones, will depend on them in such a way, that they
will be absorbed with the credit of the States the day after a political
catastrophe. Gentlemen here present, who are economists, consider the importance
of this combination.
of Joly, p. 77:
It is necessary to reach that the State has only proletarians, some millionaires
of Nilus, p.45:
It is necessary that the States have only proletarians, some millionaires ...
of Joly, p. 159:
Sila returned deified, nobody touched a hair of his head.
of Nilus, p. 93:
Sila was deified (nobody touched a hair of the head of Sila).
It is necessary to indicate that
sometimes Nilus is mistaken, loses the thread and does not know who is speaking,
mixing the contradictory judgments of both characters in the work of Joly.
Altogether, there are more than
160 passages in the Protocols,
corresponding to a forty percent of the total text, that are evidently based on
passages in Joly. In nine of the chapters, the copied text reaches to more than
A small grotesque detail is the Latin
quotation--the only one in the Protocols:
Per me reges regnant (By me the kings reign). This is a
direct quotation of the book of Proverbs, 8, 15, in its Catholic translation
(the Vulgata). It is inconceivable that in the Basel Congress, where many if all
the participants spoke or understood Hebrew, they would use a Catholic
translation of the Bible, instead of the Hebrew original: Bi
The attack on Freemasonry contained
in the work of Nilus (which, of course, does not appear in Joly's book) is shown
in many paragraphs of the Protocols.
For example, in Protocol No. 11: "This is what has served as the basis for
our organization of a Secret Freemasonry Unknown By This "Gentile"
Cattle And Whose Objectives Not Even They suspect attracted by us to the
Theatrical Army of Masonic Lodges to throw sand in the eyes of its members”
Protocol No. 15 is perhaps
most interesting from the Masonic point of view, containing sentences such as "we
will create and multiply free Masonic lodges [evidently Joly did not understand
the name Freemason] in all the countries of the world ... . We will put all
these lodges under a central administration known only to us ... . Between the
members of these lodges will be almost all the international and national police
We have here all the elements of the conspiracy theories, and it is not
worth the trouble to try to discuss with someone who is ready to believe these
nonsenses, making him see, for example, the independence kept jealously by Grand
Lodges world-wide, or that the secret police of the totalitarian regimes count
themselves among the most rabid enemies of Freemasonry.
The courts have passed judgment
more than once that the Protocols
are a falsification and a plagiarism. For example, in May of 1935, a Swiss
judge in Bern, judging a person accused of distributing seditious literature,
declared: "I consider that the Protocols
are a falsification, a plagiarism and a triviality." Nevertheless,
the Nazi propaganda made energetic use of the Protocols
to justify its racist policies and its reprinting and distribution are
some of the main occupations of the anti-Semitic circles anywhere in the world,
Declaring at that trial, Count A.M. du Chayla provided important information
on Sergei Nilus, whom he knew closely. During World War I, Count du Chayla
commanded a squadron of Cossacks of the Don, and was decorated for heroism. In
1909, he spent nine months in the monastery of Optina Poustina, where he was a
neighbor of Nilus, with whom he developed a close friendship. Nilus spoke to him
frequently about the Protocols and showed him the original document and his commentaries
that he was preparing. "Nilus presented to Chayla a certain Mme. K, who
had been his lover in Paris, and after Nilus married, she came to live with him
and his wife. Mrs. Nilus was a woman of weak character and did not raise
objections to this arrangement. Nilus told du Chayla that, while they were in
Paris, Mrs. K. had known a certain General Ratchkovsky, who had given him the
manuscript of the Protocols, which according to him had been
removed from the secret archives of the Freemasons”.(
Bernstein, op. cit., p. 49.)
General Ratchkovsky was one of the
agents of the Okrana, the infamous secret police of czarist Russia. After
the plagiarism was revealed, some anti-Semites invented an
"explanation" for the identity between texts. According to them, Joly
was in fact a baptized Jew whose true name was Moses Joel and who, naturally,
was a communist and had been shot in 1871. That Joel must have known of the
Jewish-Masonic plan of world conquest, and therefore it was natural that his
book and the Protocols agreed!
historical truth, according to what has been found out, is that Maurice Joly was
a monarchist and anti-Semite, descendant of an old French Catholic family, many
of whose members served as government officials.
The Protocols extend
Ferrer Benimeli remarks, the publishing success of the Protocols
was unquestionable. In the British Museum of London, 43 different
editions are conserved. Especially in the 1930's, time of height of fascism and
nazism, we find no less than 28 editions and translations, printed in the four
corners of the world. (Ferrer
Benimeli, op. cit., p. 148)
The first translation into another language was done by a German,
captain Müller von Hausen, writing under the pseudonym of Gottfried zur Beck,
who added numerous notes and commentaries to the appendix of Nilus--that is to
say, the Protocols--and
included them in pages 68 to 143 of his book entitled "Die Geheimnisse
der Weisen von Sion" (The secrets of the Elders of Zion). Von Hausen
dedicated his book "To the princes of Europe",
as a warning against the Jewish conspiracy that threatened thrones and
altars. (Ferrer Benimeli, op. cit., p. 143.)
Its publication was sponsored by the German nobility and popular pocket
editions were made to reach a maximum diffusion.
In 1920, the Protocols
were translated into Polish, and other editions appeared also in the United
States and England. Shortly after, it also appeared in Sweden, Japan, Portugal
and France. In 1925, an edition in Arabic was published in Damascus, widely
spread throughout the Middle East.
The first edition of the Protocols
in Spain dates from 1927, entitled "The Jewish-Masonic danger. The Protocols of the Wise
Men of Zion” (Ferrer
Benimeli, op. cit., p. 144.) There
were numerous later editions.
In the United States, the Protocols
obtained the support of an important "believer," the
automobile industrialist, Henry Ford. We do not know the reason for Ford's
anti-Semitism, but the fact is that he not only financed out of his pocket
several editions of the book, but he also created a magazine (The Dearborn
Independent) especially to denounce the Jewish danger. Eventually, Ford
gathered his anti-Semitic articles in a book entitled "The
International Jew." The book was quickly translated into
German by Theodor Fritsch and in 1922 it had already reached 22 editions. Both,
the book of Ford and the Protocols,
became indispensable elements in the anti-Semitic propaganda of the Nazis.
as already noted, became the "Bible" of anti-Semites and anti-Masons.
Adolf Hitler used them as justification for his policy of racial persecution,
that culminated, as we know, in the "Final Solution," that is to say
the Holocaust--the mass murder of millions of Jewish men, women and children for
the only "crime" of being Jewish.
After the end of World War II, and after the revelation of the
inconceivable crimes against humanity perpetrated by Nazi Germany, and the
extermination of one third of the Jewish people, a more critical attitude could
have been expected towards the Protocols,
whose falsification had been demonstrated over and over again.
The Holocaust itself gave proof, in
possibly the most tragic and concrete form, the absolute nonsense of the
presumed "plans of world-wide domination" described in the Protocols.
Nevertheless, anti-Semitic and anti-Masonic hatred does not have relation with
logic but rather with psychopathology. The anti-Semites simply have chosen to
deny the existence of the Holocaust, alleging that the fields of extermination,
gas chambers, thousands of testimonies, photos, films and confessions of some of
the criminals implied in the Holocaust are inventions and mystifications.
The anti-Semitic and anti-Masonic propaganda continues to appear without
respite. In June of 1992, a pamphlet of 40 pages was published in a Turkish
newspaper, in full color, on the occasion of the celebration of the Fifth
Centenary of the welcome granted by the Ottoman Empire to the Jews expelled from
Spain. The publication is entitled "The Last Message" and shows on its front page
a photo of Kemal Atatürk, the father of the Turkish Republic, with the motto:
"Following your steps." The following title promises to reveal the
secrets of Freemasonry, but reading the text demonstrates that it is simply
another opuscule of rabidly anti-Semitic propaganda. In the interior there is a
photo of Hitler with the title "the Jews financed me," and one of
Mussolini saying "I am a Zionist."
Of special interest for us is the illustration in truncated pyramid
form, with the all-seeing eye within a triangle at the top of the pyramid.
Below, in decreasing levels, "the structure of the Jewish world-wide power
is revealed": at the top, 3 Jewish Kabbalists, then the Sanhedrin (made up
of 70 Elders), beneath them the B'nai-B'rith and something called Bilderberg
"founded in Holland in 1954 with money from Rockefeller and
Rothschild." Nobody has ever discovered what this is. The following level
is ... FREEMASONRY, thus, in large letters. Finally, below Freemasonry
are the Rotary, the Lions and ... believe it or not, the "Diners
The 40 pages of the pamphlet are filled with fascinating revelations,
such as, for example, that the "Nazi" word is the name of the European
Jews (evidently, for the author there is no difference between "Ashkenazi”(
From "Ashkenaz," the name of Germany in medieval Hebrew) and
( Abbreviation of "Nationalsozialist.")
Hitler was financed by Jewish
bankers, and the Jewish financier Bernard Baruch, "owner of 243 of the 246
ammunition factories in the United States" is the one, who organized World
War II.( Report by Alexander Zvielli
and David Bar-Illan: "Calculated madness in a Turkish fantasy," The
Jerusalem Post (Jerusalem), 24 July 1992)
It is easy to laugh at this sad
Turkish "corrected and augmented" version of the Protocols, but the subject is very serious. Turkey is a Moslem country,
that fights to maintain the laic tradition imposed by the founders of the
Turkish Republic at the beginning of the 1920's. The Islamic fundamentalists are
fighting ferociously to recover their power, to seize primary education and to
transform Turkey into another Islamic nation in the style of Iran. In their
fight, the use of anti-Semitism--conjugated in the eyes of these circles with
Zionism--and anti-Masonry, are some of their main weapons.
are continued to be published, as if nothing had happened. Its
popularity continues until today. In the latest volume of the annual survey of
anti-Semitism in the world, corresponding to the year 1995, published by the
University of Tel Aviv, the Protocols
are written down as an excuse for acts of Arab terrorism in Villeurbanne, France
(p. 10) and new editions of the Protocols
were made in the United States, Estonia, Slovakia, Ukraine, Iran,
Denmark, and a translation into Greek published in Australia! (“Anti-Semitism
World Wide” 1995/6,
University of Tel Aviv, Project of Anti-Semitism Studies, Tel Aviv, 1996)
I will begin by mentioning the conclusions of the R.P. Pierre Charles (Charles,
op. cit., p. 34)
1. If taken as a program, the Protocols
... are only a series of digressions without importance, that frequently
expose the incoherence of the editor and his ignorance of the most elementary
knowledge. Nobody could ever execute such a program, because it is full of
visible contradictions and irrationality.
2. It is proven that these Protocols
are a falsification, clumsily plagiarized from the satirical work of Maurice
Joly and composed in order to make the Jews hateful, inciting against them the
irreflexive and blind passions of the crowd.
3. The Zionist Congress of Basel has
absolutely nothing to do with the composition of the Protocols.
4. It is possible to wonder at the
aim of the authors of this falsification. It seems, in truth, that it must be
related to the internal situation of Russia and the Czarist manifesto of October
30 of the same year. But in order not to mix conjectures with a clear
conclusion, we do not want to examine this point.
To the previous conclusions we could
add the evident falsification of the relation between Judaism and Freemasonry,
of which we have already spoken. Also, an attempt has been made to connect
Freemasonry with Communism, which is so absurd and grotesque as the previous
one, if we remember that Freemasonry was prohibited and Masons were persecuted
by all communist regimes, beginning with the Soviet Union. In 1922, the Fourth
Communist International declared that Freemasonry and Communism are
incompatible, and a couple of years later, the Russian secret police eliminated
the last vestiges of Freemasonry arresting the few remaining Masons. Something
similar happened in all the countries of the Soviet orbit, where Freemasonry was
strictly prohibited during the communist regime. The only well-known exception
to this general rule is that of Cuba, where the Order continues to work--under
close police supervision--but it is not been suppressed.
The fight between the children of
light and the sectarians of hatred and intolerance not only has not ended, but
is worsening. In countries of long democratic tradition, like England and the
United States, anti-Masonry has flowered again and is reaching new levels of
fanatical activity. The opportunities offered by electronic
technology--especially the Internet--have been quickly taken advantage of by
anti-Semites and anti-Masons, whereas of the side of Freemasonry, the reaction
is very slow and we can say that it is in its infancy. In the world-wide scene,
the Renaissance of Freemasonry in the various countries of the former Soviet
empire is extremely slow and difficult, much more than what was assumed a few
On the other hand, there still are
numerous nations in the world--especially those with Islamic regimes--where
Freemasonry is prohibited until today.
I end with a last quotation from
"Hatred is like the legendary tunic of Deianira,
of which Hercules could not rid himself. Hatreds are--alas!--the treasure that
man keeps more ferociously; and he stones with rage those, who try to wrest them
from him”.(Charles, op. cit., p. 35.)