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Article # 216
Illustrations of Masonry- Book-4 (Sections 10 and 11)

Author: W.Bro.William Preston    Posted on: Wednesday, June 28, 2006
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[Sections 10 and 11 of the Book-4 of the Illustrations of Masonry are posted hereunder. The footnotes have been incorporated at the appropriate places of the main text and enclosed within brackets. Detailed description of the Foundation Stone laying Ceremony has been mentioned in this article also. The information about the first initiation of an Indian in India, the construction and dedication of the Masonic Temple in Queen Street as well as a description of the same and Laying of the Foundation Stone in Scotland are found in these Sections.]

Illustrations  Of  Masonry

W.Bro. William Preston

Past Master of the Lodge of Antiquity (No.1)

Section. 10.  History of Masonry in the South of England from the Accession of George III. to the end of the Year 1779.

On the 6th of October 1760, His Present Majesty George III was proclaimed. No prince ever ascended the Throne, whose private virtues and amiable character had so justly endeared him to his people. To see a native of England, the Sovereign of these realms, afforded the most glorious prospect of fixing our happy Constitution in Church and State on the firmest base. Under such a patron the polite arts could not fail of meeting with every encouragement and to the honour his Majesty it is to be observed, that, since his accession to the throne, by his Royal munificence no pains have been spared to explore distant regions in pursuit of useful knowledge and to diffuse science throughout every part of his dominions.

Masonry now flourished at home and aboard under the English Constitution and Lord Aberdour continued at the head of the fraternity five years, during which time the public festivals and quarterly communications were regularly held. His Lordship equalled any of his predecessors in the number of appointments to the office of Provincial Grand Master, having granted the following deputations:

 1. for Antigua and the Leeward Caribbee Islands,

2. for the town of Norwich and county of Norfolk,

3. for the Bahama Islands, in the room of the governor deceased,

4. for Hamburgh and Lower Saxony,

5. for Guadaloupe,

6. for Lancaster,

7. for the province of Georgia,

8. for Canada,

9. for Andalusiaand places adjacent,

10. for Bermuda,

11. for Carolina,

12. for Musquito Shore  and  13. for East India.

The second of these appointments, viz. for Norwich, is that by which the Society has been most benefited. By the diligence and attention of the late Edward Bacon esq. to whom the patent was first granted, the lodges in Norwich and Norfolk considerably increased and masonry was regularly conducted in that province under his inspection for many years.

Lord Aberdour held the office of Grand Master till the 3d of May 1762, when he was succeeded by Earl Ferrers, during whose presidency nothing remarkable occurred. The Society seems at this time to have lost much of its consequence, the general assemblies and communications not having been honoured with the presence of the nobility as formerly and many lodges erased out of the lift for non attendance on the duties of the Grand Lodge [Since this period, new Constitutions had been too easily granted and lodges multiplied beyond proportion. A proper check, however, is now put to this practice, the legislature having prohibited, by Act of Parliament, the constituting of any new lodges]

By the diligence and attention, however, of the late General John Salter, then Deputy Grand Master, the business of the Society was carried on with regularity and the fund of charity considerably increased. Provincial patents were made out during Earl Ferrers's presidency,

 1. for Jamaica,

2. for East India, where no particular provincial was before appointed,

3. for Cornwall,

4. for Armenia,

5. for Westphalia,

6. for Bombay,

7. for the Dukedom of Brunswick,

8. for the Grenades, St. Vincent, Dominica, Tobago, etc. and   9. for Canada.

From these appointments no considerable emoluments have resulted to the Society, excepting from the third and sixth, George Bell for Cornwal and James Todd for Bombay. Both these gentlemen were particularly attentive to the duties of their respective offices, especially the former, to whom the Society is in a great measure indebted for the flourishing state of masonry in Cornwall.

On the 8th of May 1764, at an assembly and feast at Vintners' Hall, Lord Blaney was elected Grand Master. Lord Ferrers invested John Revis esq. late Deputy Grand Master, as proxy for his Lordship, who continued in office two years, during which time, being chiefly in Ireland the business of the Society was faithfully executed by his deputy, General Salter, an active and a vigilant officer. The scheme of opening a subscription for the purchase of furniture for the Grand Lodge was agitated about this time and some money collected, but the design dropped for want of encouragement. A new edition of the Book of Constitutions was ordered to be printed under the inspection of a committee, with a continuation of the proceedings of the Society since the publication of the last edition.

During Lord Blaney's presidency, the Dukes of Gloucester and Cumberland were initiated into the Order, the former, at an occasional lodge assembled at the Horn Tavern Westminster, on the 16th of February 1766, at which His Lordship resided in person, the latter, at an occasional lodge assembled at the Thatched House Tavern in St. James street, under the direction of General Salter.

The following deputations for the office of Provincial Grand Master were granted by Lord Blaney,

 1. for Barbadoes,

2. for Upper Saxony,

3 for Stockholm:

4. for Virginia,

5. for Bengal,

6. for Italy,

7. for the Upper and Lower Rhineand the Circle of Franconia,

8. for Antigua,

9. for the Electorate of Saxony,

10. for Madras and its dependencies,

11. for Hampshire  and  12. for Montserrat.


The fifth, tenth and eleventh of these appointments have been faithfully executed. By the indefatigable assiduity of that truly masonic luminary, Thomas Dunckerley esq. in whose favour the appointment for Hampshire was first made out, masonry has made considerable progress in that province, as well as in many other counties in England. Since his appointment to this office, he has accepted the superintendence of the lodges in Dorsetshire, Essex, Gloucestershire, Somersetshire and Herefordshire.

[In grateful testimony of the zealous and indefatigable exertions of this gentleman for many years to promote the honour and interest of the Society, the Grand Lodge resolved that he should rank as a Past Senior Grand Warden and in all processions take place near the present Senior Grand Warden for the time being. In November, 1795, he died at Portsmouth.]

The revival of the Bengal and Madras appointments have been also attended with success, as the late liberal remittances from the East Indies amply show.

Among several regulations respecting the fees of constitutions and other matters which passed during Lord Blaney's administration, was the following, That as the Grand Lodge entertained the highest sense of the honour conferred on the Society by the initiation of the Dukes of Gloucester and Cumberland it was resolved, that each of their Royal Highnesses should be presented with an apron, lined with blue silk and that, in all future processions, they should rank as Past Grand Masters, next to the Grand Officers for the time being. The same compliment was also paid to their Royal brother the late Duke of York, who had been initiated into masonry while on his travels.

The Duke of Beaufort succeeded Lord Blaney and was installed by proxy at Merchant Taylors Hall on the 27th of April 1767. Under the patronage of His Grace the Society flourished.

In the beginning of 1768, two letters were received from the Grand Lodge of France, expressing a desire of opening a regular correspondence with the Grand Lodge of England. This was cheerfully agreed to and a Book of Constitutions, a list of the lodges under the Constitution of England with the form of a deputation, elegantly bound, were ordered to be sent as a present to the Grand Lodge of France.

Several regulations for the future government of the Society were made about this time, particularly one respecting the office of Provincial Grand Master. At a Grand Lodge held at the Crown and Anchor Tavern in the Strand on the 29th of April 1768, it was resolved that ten guineas should be paid to the fund of charity on the appointment of every Provincial Grand Master who had not served the office of Grand Steward.

The most remarkable occurrence during the administration of the Duke of Beaufort, was the plan of an incorporation by Royal Charter. At a Grand Lodge held at the Crown and Anchor Tavern on the 28th of October 1768, a report was made from the Committee of Charity held on the 21st of that month at the Horn Tavern in Fleet Street, on the Grand Master's intentions to have the Society incorporated, if it met with the approbation of the brethren, the advantages of such a measure were fully explained and a plan for the purpose was submitted to the consideration of the Committee. The plan being approved, the thanks of the Grand Lodge were voted to the Grand Master, for his attention to the interests and prosperity of the Society. The Hon. Charles Dillon, then Deputy Grand Master, informed the brethren, that he had submitted to the Committee a plan for raising a fund to build a hall and purchase jewels, furniture, &c. for the Grand Lodge, independent of the general fund of charity, the carrying of which into execution, he apprehended, would be a proper prelude to an Incorporation, should it be the wish of the Society to obtain a charter. The plan being laid before the Communication, several amendments were made and the whole referred to the next Grand Lodge for confirmation. In the mean time it was resolved, that the said plan should be printed and transmitted to all the lodges on record. [This plan consisted chiefly of certain fees to be paid by the Grand Officers annually, by new lodges at their constitution and by brethren at initiation into Masonry, or admission into lodges as members, etc].

The Duke of Beaufort finding that the Society approved of Incorporation, contributed his best endeavours to carry the design into immediate execution: though at first he was opposed by a few brethren, who misconceived his good intentions, he persevered in promoting every measure that might facilitate the plan and a copy of the intended charter was soon after printed and dispersed among the lodges. Before the Society, however, had come to any determined resolution on the business, the members of a respectable lodge, then held at the Half Moon Tavern Cheapside, entered a caveat in the attorney-general's office, against the Incorporation and this circumstance being reported to the Grand Lodge, an impeachment was laid against that lodge, for unwarrantably exposing the private resolutions of the Grand Lodge and it being determined that the members of the said lodge had been guilty of a great offence, in presuming to oppose the resolutions of the Grand Lodge and endeavouring to frustrate the intentions of the Society, a motion was made, that it should be erased from the list of lodges, but, on the Master of the lodge acknowledging the fault and in the name of himself and his brethren, making a proper apology, the motion was withdrawn and the offence forgiven. From the return of the different lodges it appeared, that one hundred and sixty eight had voted for the Incorporation and only forty three against it, upon which a motion was made in Grand Lodge, on the 28th of April 1769, that the Society should be incorporated, which was carried in the affirmative by a great majority.

At a Grand Lodge held at the Crown and Anchor Tavern on the 27th of October 1769, it was resolved, that the sum of 1300l. then standing in the names of Rowland Berkeley esq. the Grand Treasurer and Mr. Arthur Beardmore and Mr. Richard Nevison his sureties, in the three per cent. bank consolidated annuities, in trust for the Society, be transferred into the names of the present Grand Officers and at an extra ordinary Grand Lodge on the 29th of November following, the Society was informed that Mr. Beardmore had refused to join in the transfer, upon which it was resolved that letters should be sent, in the name of the Society, signed by the acting Grand Officers, to Lord Blarney the Past Grand Master and to his Deputy and Wardens, to whom the Grand Treasurer and his sureties had given bond, requesting their concurrence in the resolutions of the Grand Lodge of the 29th of October last. Mr. Beardmore, however, dying soon after, the desire of the Grand Lodge was complied with by Mr. Nevison and the transfer regularly made.

The Duke of Beaufort constituted several new lodges and granted the following provincial deputations during his presidency: 1. for South Carolina, 2. Jamaica, 3. Barbadoes, 4. Naples and Sicily, 5. The Empire of Russiaand 6. The Austrian Netherlands. The increase of foreign lodges occasioned the institution of a new officer, a Provincial Grand Master for foreign lodges in general and His Grace accordingly nominated a gentleman for that office. He also appointed Provincial Grand Masters for Kent, Suffolk, Lancashire and Cumberland. Another new appointment likewise took place during His Grace's administration, viz. the office of General Inspector or Provincial Grand Master for lodges within the bills of mortality, but the majority of the lodges in London disapproving the appointment, the authority was soon after withdrawn.

At a Grand Lodge held at the Crown and Anchor Tavern on the 25th of April 1770, the Provincial Grand Master for foreign lodges acquainted the Society, that he had lately received a letter from Charles baron de Boetzelaer, Grand Master of the National Grand Lodge of the United Provinces of Holland and their dependencies, requesting to be acknowledged as such by the Grand Lodge of England whose superiority he confessed and promising, that if the Grand Lodge of England would agree in future not to constitute any new lodge within his jurisdiction, the Grand Lodge of Holland would observe the same restriction with respect to all parts of the world where lodges were already established under the patronage of England. Upon these terms he requested that a firm and friendly alliance might be established between the Officers of both Grand Lodges, an annual correspondence carried on and each Grand Lodge regularly made acquainted once in every year with the most material transactions of the other. On this report being made, the Grand Lodge agreed, that such an alliance or compact should be immediately entered into and executed, agreeably to Baron de Boetzelaer's request.

In 1771, a bill was brought into Parliament by the Hon. Charles Dillon, then Deputy Grand Master, for incorporating the Society by act of Parliament, but on the second reading of the bill, it having been opposed by Mr. Onslow, at the desire of several brethren, who had petitioned the house against it, Mr. Dillon moved to postpone the consideration of it sine die and thus the design of an Incorporation fell to the ground. The Duke of Beaufort constituted several new lodges and granted the following provincial deputations, during his presidency:

 1. for South Carolina, 2. Jamaica, 3. Barbadoes, 4. Naples and Sicily: 5. the Empire of Russia and 6. the Austrian Netherlands.

The increase of foreign lodges occasioned the institution of a new officer, a Provincial Grand Master for foreign lodges in general and His Grace accordingly nominated a gentleman for that office. He also appointed Provincial Grand Masters for Kent, Suffolk, Lancashire and Cumberland. Another new appointment likewise took place during His Grace's administration, viz. the office of General Inspectors or Provincial Grand Masters for lodges within the bills of mortality, but the majority of the lodges in London disapproving the appointment, the authority was soon after withdrawn.

Lord Petre succeeded the Duke of Beaufort on the 4th of May 1772, when several regulations were made for better securing the property belonging to the Society. A considerable sum having been subscribed for the purpose of building a hall, a committee was appointed to superintend the management of that business. Every measure was adopted to enforce the laws for raising a new fund to carry the designs of the Society into execution and no pains were spared by the committee to complete the purpose of their appointment. By their report to the Grand Lodge on 27th April 1774, it appeared that they had contracted for the purchase of a plot of ground and premises, consisting of two large commodious dwelling houses and a large garden, situated in Great Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields, in the possession of Phillip Carteret Webb esq. deceased, the particulars of which were specified in a plan then delivered, that the real value appeared to be £3,205 at the least, but that £3,180 was the sum contracted to be paid for the premises, that the front house might produce £90 per annum and the back house would furnish commodious committee rooms, offices, kitchens, etc and that the garden was sufficiently large to contain a complete hall for the use of the Society, the expense of the which was calculated not to exceed £3,000. This report met with general approbation. Lord Petre, the Dukes of Beaufort and Chandos, Earl Ferrersand Lord viscount Dudley and Ward, were appointed trustees for the Society and the conveyance of the premises purchased was made in their names. [Notwithstanding this estimate, it appears by the Grand Treasurer's accounts, that in 1792 above 20,000l. had been expended on this building, and that, exclusive of an annuity of 250l. on account of a tontine, there then remained due from the hall fund to sundry tradesmen a considerable debt, the greatest part of which has been since paid off. The tavern has been rebuilt and enlarged, within these few years, which has increased the expense to 30,000l.]

On the 22nd of February 1775, the Hall Committee reported to the Grand Lodge, that a plan had been proposed and approved for raising £5,000 to complete the designs of the Society and granting annuities for lives, with benefit of survivorship, a plan now known under the name of Tontine. It was accordingly resolved, that there should be one hundred lives at a £50 each, that the whole premises belonging to the Society in Great Queen Street, with the hall to be built thereon, should be vested in trustees, as a security to the subscribers, who should be paid £5 per cent. for their money advanced amounting to £250 per annum, that this interest should be divided among the subscribers and the survivors or survivor of them and upon the death of the last survivor, the whole to determine for the benefit of the Society. The Grand Lodge approving of the plan, the subscription immediately commenced and in less than three months was complete, upon which the trustees of the Society conveyed the estate to the trustees of the tontine, in pursuance of a resolution of the Grand Lodge for that purpose. 

On 1st May 1775, the Foundation Stone of the new hall was laid in solemn form in the presence of a numerous company of the brethren. After the ceremony, the company proceeded in carriages to Leathersellers Hall, where an elegant entertainment was provided on the occasion and at the meeting the office of Grand Chaplain was first instituted.

[Within the Foundation Stone was deposited a plate with the following inscription:




























The building of the hall went on so rapidly that it was finished in little more than twelve months. On the 23rd of May 1776, it was opened and dedicated, in solemn form to MASONRY, VIRTUE and UNIVERSAL CHARITY and BENEVOLENCE, in the presence of a brilliant assembly of the brethren. A new Ode, was written and set to music on the occasion and was performed, before a number of ladies, who honoured the Society with their company on that day. [Written by a Member of the ALFRED LODGE at OXFORD, set to Music by Dr. FISHER, and performed at the Dedication of FREEMASONS' HALL.]



WHAT solemn sounds on holy Sinai rung,

When heav'nly lyres, by angel fingers strung,

Accorded to th'immortal lay,

That hymn'd Creation's natal day!


RECITATIVE, accompanied.

'Twas then the shouting sons of morn

Bless'd the great omnific Word;

Abash'd hoarse jarring atoms heard,

Forgot their pealing strife,

And softly crouded into life,

When Order, Law, and Harmony were born:



The mighty Master's pencil warm,

Trac'd out the shadowy farm,

And bid each fair proportion grace

Smiling Nature's modest face.



Heav'n's rarest gifts were seen to join

To deck a finish'd form divine,

And fill the sov'reign Artist's plan;

Th' Almighty's image stamp'd the glowing frame,

And seal'd him with the noblest name,

Archetype of beauty, Man,




Ye spirits pure, that rous'd the tuneful throng,

And loos'd to rapture each triumphant tongue,

Again with quick instinctive fire,

Each harmonious lip inspire:

Again bid every vocal throat

Dissolve in tender votive stain.



Now while yonder white-rob'd train

Before the mystic shrine,

In lowly adoration join,

Now sweep the living lyre, and swell the melting note.



Yet ere the holy rites begin,

The conscious shrine within

Bid your magic song impart,



How within the wasted heart,

Shook by passion's ruthless pow'r,

Virtue trimm'd her faded flow'r,

To op'ning buds of fairest fruit;

How from majestic Nature's blowing face,

She caught each animating grace,

And planted there th' immortal root.



RECITATIVE, accompanied.

Daughter of gods, fair Virtue, if to thee

And thy bright Sister, Universal Love,

Soul of all good, e'er flow'd the soothing harmony

Of pious gratulation; from above,

To us, thy duteous votaries, impart

Pretence divine.



The sons of antique Art,

In high mysterious jubilee,

With Pæan loud, and solemn rite,

Thy holy step invite,

And court thy listening ear,

To drink the cadence clear,

That swells the choral symphony.



To thee, by foot profane untrod,

Their votive hands have rear'd the high above.



Here shall your impulse kind,

Inspire the tranced mind.



And lips of Truth shall tell

What heav'nly deeds befit,

The soul by Wisdoms lesson smit;

What praise he claims, who nobly spurns

Gay vanities of life, and tinsel joys,

For which unpurged fancy burns.



What pain he shuns, who dares be wise;

What glory wins, who dares excel!


An exordium on masonry, not less elegant than instructive, was given by the Grand Secretary and an excellent oration delivered by the Grand Chaplain. In commemoration of an event so pleasing to the Society , it was agreed, that the anniversary of this ceremony should be ever after regularly kept.

Thus was completed, under the auspices of a nobleman, whose amiable character as a man and zeal as a mason may be equalled, but cannot be surpassed, that elegant and highly finished room on Great Queen Street, in which the annual assembly and quarterly communications of the fraternity are held and to the accomplishment of which many lodges, as well as private individuals, have liberally subscribed. It is to be regretted, that the finances of the Society will not admit of its being solely reserved for masonic purposes.

The hall is as elegant and highly finished a room as the metropolis can show. The entrance into it is from the Committee Room, through a small gallery, on the right of which is a commodious flight of steps leading to the under croft, or ground apartments and on the left a small room appropriated for the reception of wines on grand festivals, above this is a large music gallery, capable of containing three hundred spectators, exclusive of the band of music, supported by pillars and pilasters of the composite order. The length of this building within the walls is 92 feet, it is 43 feet broad and upwards of 60 feet high. At the upper end of the hall there is a place allotted for the Grand Officers and their attendants, when the Grand Lodge meets, which takes up about one fourth of the whole length and which is higher than the rest by two steps, at the extremity of which is a very beautiful alcove, of a semi circular form, in which is fixed a fine organ. On the right and left of this elevated place are two galleries, supported by beautiful fluted pillars of the Corinthian order, either for music, or to admit ladies to the sight of such ceremonies as the laws of the Society will permit. The remaining part of the hall is for the use of the Grand Stewards and brethren in general, when the Grand Lodge assembles. The pilasters on each side of the hall are fluted and otherwise most beautifully decorated. Between these pilasters there are places appropriated for the reception of full length paintings of the Grand Masters, &c. Those at present fixed are, the Prince of Wales, the Earl of Moira, the late Dukes of Cumberland and Manchester and the late Lord Petre. Above them are places for such historical paintings as have some affinity to the royal art, or are expressive of the virtues of Freemasonry. All the other intermediate spaces are elegantly decorated with the most beautiful emblematical, symbolical and hieroglyphical figures and representations of the mysteries of the royal art.

Round the top of the side walls runs a small balustrade, or rather a kind of ornamented iron palisades, capable of holding a vast number of spectators, above which a number of semicircular windows are placed, so contrived, as to open and shut with the greatest ease and facility, to let in fresh air as often as may be required. The reason why the windows are placed so high is, that no spectators from the adjacent houses may view the masonic ceremonies.

The roof of this magnificent hall is, in all probability, the highest finished piece of workmanship in Europe, having gained universal applause from all beholders and raised the character of the architect (Richard Cox) beyond expression. In the centre of this roof a most splendid sun is represented in burnished gold, surrounded by the twelve signs of the Zodiac, with their respective characters, viz., Aries,. Taurus,. Gemini,. Cancer,. Leo,. Virgo,. Libra,. Scorpio,. Sagittarius,. Capricorn,. Aquarius,. and Pisces,.

The emblematic meaning of the sun is well known to the enlightened and inquisitive Freemason and as the real sun is situated in the centre of the universe, so is this emblematic sun fixed in the centre of real masonry. We all know that the sun is the fountain of light, the source of the seasons, the cause of the vicissitudes of day and night, the parent of vegetation and the friend of man, but the scientific Freemason only knows the reason, why the sun is thus placed in the centre of this beautiful hall.

Whenever the Grand Lodge assembles, this hall is further ornamented with five brilliant and rich cut glass chandeliers, the most magnificent of which hangs above the part of the hall allotted to the Grand Officers, the other four are distributed in pairs, at equal distances. These lustres, with a sufficient number of sconces, in which only wax lights burn, illuminate the hall with a great brilliancy.

The Tavern is a most commodious suite of rooms and under its present conductors possess that large portion of the public favour to which their civility, liberality, diligence and attention, most justly entitle them.

The brethren of St John's Lodge in Newcastle, animated by the example set then in the metropolis, opened a subscription for the purpose of building, in the Low Friar Chair in that town, a new hall for their meetings and on the 23rd of September 1776, the foundation stone of that building was laid by Mr Francis Peacock, then Master of the lodge. This edifice was speedily completed, furnished and dedicated, but we since learn, that it has been sold and appropriated to other purposes.

The flourishing state of the Society in England attracted the attention of the masons in Germany, who solicited our friendship and alliance. The Grand Lodge at Berlin, under the patronage of the Prince of Hess Darmstatd, requested  a friendly union and correspondence with their brethren in England which was agreed to, on the Grand Lodge of Germany engaging to remit an annual donation to the fund of charity.The business of the Society having been now considerably increased, it was resolved, that the Grand Secretary should be permitted in future to employ a deputy or assistant, at an annual salary proportioned to his labour.

On the 14th February 1776, the Grand Lodge resolved, that in future all Past Grand Officers should be permitted to wear a particular gold jewel, the ground enamelled in blue and each officer to be distinguished by the jewel which he wore while in office, with this difference, that such honorary jewel should be fixed with a circle of oval, on the borders of which were to be inscribed his name and the year in which he served the office. This jewel to be worn in Grand Lodge pendant to a broad blue riband and on other occasions, to be fixed to the breast by a narrow blue riband. [How far the introduction of new ornaments is reconcilable to the original practices of the Society, I will not presume to determine, but it is the opinion of many old Masons, that multiplying honorary distinctions among Masons lessens the value and importance of the real jewels by which the acting officers of the Lodge are distinguished.]

Many regulations respecting the government of the fraternity were established during Lord Petre's administration. The meetings of irregular masons again attracted notice and on the 10th April 1777, the following law was enacted "That the persons who assemble in London and elsewhere, in the character of masons, calling themselves Ancient Masons and at present said to be under the patronage of the Duke of Athol, are not to be countenanced, or acknowledged, by any regular lodge, or mason, under the constitution of England, nor shall any regular mason be present  be present at any of their proceedings, under the penalty of forfeiting the privileges of the Society, nor shall any person initiated at any of the irregular meetings, be admitted into any lodge, without being re-made. That this censure shall not extend to any lodge, or mason made in Scotland or Ireland under the constitution of either of these Kingdoms, or to any lodge, or mason made abroad, under the patronage of any foreign Grand Lodge in alliance with the Grand Lodge of England but that such lodge and masons shall be deemed to be regular and constitutional."

 [Remark.- This censure only extends to those irregular lodges in London which seceded from the rest of the Fraternity in 1738and set up an independent government, in open defiance of the established authority of the Kingdomand the general rules of the institution. See p. 241 - 244 , it cannot apply to the Grand Lodge in York city, or to any lodges under that truly ancient and respectable banner, as the independence and regular proceedings of that assembly have been fully admitted and authenticated by the Grand Lodge in London in their Book of Constitutions, printed under their sanction in 1738, p. 195.]

An Appendix to the Book of Constitutions, containing all the principal proceedings of the Society since the publication of the last edition, was ordered to be printed, also a new annual publication, entitled THE FREE-MASONS CALENDAR and the profits arising from the sale of both, were to be regularly brought to account in the charity fund. To preserve the consequence of the Society, the following law was enacted at this time: "That the fees for constitutions, initiations, etc should be advanced and no person be initiated into masonry in any lodge in England for less sum that two guineas and that the name, age profession and place of residence of every person so initiated and of every admitted member of a regular lodge since the 29th October 1768, should be registered, under the penalty of such mason made, or member admitted, being deprived of the privileges of the Society.  [The usual charitable donation at initiation in many lodges is now seldom under five guineas and more frequently double that sum.]

The Masons in Sunderland having considerably increased during his Lordship's administration, an elegant hall was built in that town for their meetings. On the 16th of July 1778, this hall was dedicated in solemn form before a numerous company of brethren, on which occasion a very animated oration on Masonry was delivered in the presence of above 120 ladies. On the 19th of November, 1782, this hall was destroyed by fire and many valuable books and papers were burnt. The zeal of the brethren, however, induced them the following year to build another hall, named Phoenix Hall, of which the foundation-stone was laid, in great pomp, on the 5th of April, 1784 and in the following year it was finished and dedicated in solemn form.

Lord Petre granted provincial deputations for Madras and Virginia, also for Hants, Sussex and Surrey. though, during this presidency, some lodges were erased out of the list, for non-conformity to the laws, many new ones were added, so that under his Lordship's banner, the Society became truly respectable.

On the 1st of May 1777, Lord Petre was succeed by the Duke of Manchester, during whose administration the tranquillity of the Society was interrupted by private dissensions, an unfortunate dispute having arisen among the members of the Lodge of Antiquity, on account of some proceedings of the brethren of that lodge on the festival of St John the Evangelist after His Grace's election, the complaint was introduced into Grand Lodge, where it occupied the attention of every committee and communication for twelve months. It originated from the Master, Wardens and some of the members, having, in consequence of a resolution of the lodge, attended divine service at St Dunstan's Church in Fleet Street, in the clothing of the Order and walked back to the Mitre Tavern in their regalia without having obtained a dispensation for the purpose. The Grand Lodge determined the measure to be a violation of the general regulations respecting public processions. Various opinions were formed on the subject and several brethren highly disgusted. Another circumstance tended still farther to widen the breach. This lodge, having expelled three members for misbehaviour, the Grand Lodge interfered and without proper investigation, ordered them to be reinstated. With this order the lodge refused to comply, conceiving themselves competent judges in the choice of their members. The privileges of the lodge of Antiquity * were then set up, in opposition to the supposed uncontrollable authority of the Grand Lodge and in the investigation of this important point, the original case of dispute was totally forgotten. Matters were agitated to the extreme on both sides. Resolutions were precipitately entered into and edicts inadvertently issued. memorial and remonstrances were presented, at last a rupture ensued. The lodge of Antiquity supported its immemorial privileges, applied to the old lodge in York city and to the lodges in Scotland and Ireland for advice,, entered a protest against and peremptorily refused to comply with, the resolutions of the Grand Lodge, discontinued the attendance of its master and wardens at the committees of charity and quarterly communications as its representatives, published a manifesto in its vindication, notified its separation from the Grand Lodge, avowed an alliance with the Grand Lodge of all England held in the city of York and every lodge and mason who wished to act in conformity to the original constitutions. The Grand Lodge enforced its edicts and extended protection to the brethren whose cause it had espoused. Anathemas were issued, several worthy men in their absence expelled from the Society, for refusing to surrender the property of the lodge to three persons who had been regularly expelled from it and printed letters were circulated, with the Grand Treasurer's accounts, highly derogatory to the dignity of the Society. This produced a schism, which subsisted for the space of ten years.

To justify the proceeding of the Grand Lodge, the following resolution of the Committee of Charity held in February 1779, was printed and dispersed among the lodges,  "Resolved, That every private lodge derives its authority from the Grand Lodge and that no authority but the Grand Lodge can withdraw or take away that power. That though the majority of a lodge may determine to quite the Society, the constitution, or power of assembling, remains with and is vested in, the rest of the members who may be desirous of continuing their allegiance and that if all the members withdraw themselves, the constitution is extinct and the authority reverts to Grand Lodge."

This resolution, it was argued, might operate with respect to a lodge with derived its constitution from the Grand Lodge, but could not apply to one which derived its authority form another channel. long before the establishment of the Grand Lodge and which authority had been repeatedly admitted and acknowledged. Had it appeared upon record, that after the establishment of the Grand Lodge and original authority had had been surrendered, forfeited, or exchanged for a warrant from the Grand Lodge, the lodge of Antiquity must have admitted the resolution of the Grand Lodge its full force. But as no such circumstance appeared on record, the members of the lodge of Antiquity were justified in considering their immemorial constitution sacred, while, they chose to exist as a lodge and act in obedience to its ancient constitutions. 

Considering the subject in this point of view, it evidently appears that the resolution of the Grand Lodge could have no effect on the lodge of Antiquity, especially after the publication of the manifesto avowing its separation. The members of that lodge continued to meet regularly as heretofore and to promote the laudable purposes of masonry on their old independent foundation. The lodge of Antiquity it was asserted could not be dissolved, while the majority of its members kept together and acted in conformity to the original constitutions and no edict of the Grand Lodge, or its committees could deprive the members of that lodge of a right which had been admitted to be vested in themselves collectively from time immemorial, a right which had never been derived from, or ceded to, any Grand Lodge whatever.

To understand more clearly the nature of that constitution by which the Lodge of Antiquity is upheld, we must have recourse to the usages and customs which prevailed among Masons at the end of the last and beginning of the present century. The Fraternity then had a discretionary power to meet as Masons, in certain numbers, according to their degrees, with the approbation of the Master of the work where any public building was carrying on, as often as they found it necessary so to do and when so met, to receive into the Order brothers and fellows and practise the rites of Masonry. The idea of investing Masters and Wardens of lodges in Grand Lodge assembled, or the Grand Master himself, with a power to grant warrants of constitution to certain brethren, to meet as Masons at certain houses, on the observance of certain conditions, had then no existence. The Fraternity were under no such restrictions. The ancient charges were the only standard for the regulation of conduct and no law was known in the Society which those Charges did not inculcate. To the award of the Fraternity at large, in general meeting assembled, once or twice in a year, all brethren were subject and the authority of the Grand Master never extended beyond the bounds of that general meeting. Every private assembly, or lodge, was under the direction of its particular Master, chosen for the occasion, whose authority terminated with the meeting. When a lodge was fixed at any particular place for a certain time, an attestation from the brethren present, entered on record, was a sufficient proof of its regular constitution and this practice prevailed for many years after the revival of Masonry in the south of England. By this authority, which never proceeded from the Grand Lodge, unfettered by any other restrictions than the constitutions of Masonry, the Lodge of Antiquity has always acted and still continues to act.

Whilst I have endeavoured to explain the subject of this unfortunate dispute, I rejoice in the opportunity, which the proceedings of the grand feast in 1790 afforded of promoting harmony, by restoring to the privileges of the Society all the brethren of the Lodge of Antiquity, who had been falsely accused and expelled in 1779. By the operation of our professed principles and through the mediation of a true friend to genuine Masonry, the late William Birch esq., Past Master of the Lodge of Antiquity, unanimity was happily restored, the manifesto published by that Lodge in 1779 revoked and the Master and Wardens of that truly ancient association resumed their seats in Grand Lodge as heretofore, while the brethren who had received the sanction of the Society as nominal members of the Lodge of Antiquity during the separation, were reunited with the original members of the real Lodge and the privileges of that venerable body limited to their original channel.

Although I have considerably abridged my observations on this unfortunate dispute in the latter editions of this treatise, I still think it proper to record my sentiments on the subject, in justice to the gentlemen with whom I have long been associated and to convince my brethren, that our reunion with the Society has not induced me to vary a well grounded opinion, or deviate from the strict line of consistency which I have hitherto pursued.

 Section. 11. History of the most remarkable Events in the Society from 1779 to 1791 inclusive.

Amidst these disagreeable altercations, intelligence arrived of the rapid progress of the Society in India, where many new lodges had been constituted, which were amply supported by the first characters in the East. Omdit-ul-Omrah Bahauder, eldest son of the Nawab of the Carnatic, had been initiated into masonry in the lodge of Trichinopoly near Madras and had expressed the highest veneration for the institution. This news having been transmitted to England officially, the Grand Lodge determined to send a congratulatory letter to His Highness on the occasion, accompanied with a blue apron elegantly decorated and a copy of the Book of Constitutions superbly bound. To Sir John Day, Advocate General of Bengal, the execution of the commission was entrusted.

[At the grand feast in 1792, Sir John was honoured with a blue apron and the rank of a Grand Officer, as a compliment for his meritorious services on this occasion.]

In the beginning of 1780, an answer was received from his highness, acknowledging the receipt of the present and expressing the warmest attachment and benevolence to his brethren in England. This letter, which is written in the Persian language, was enclosed in an elegant cover of cloth of gold and addressed To the Grand Master and Grand Lodge of England.

This flattering mark of attention from so distinguished a personage abroad, was peculiarly grateful to the Grand Lodge, who immediately resolved, that a letter should be prepared and transmitted to His Highness, expressing the high opinion which the brethren in England entertained of his merits and requesting the continuance of his friendship and protection to the Masonic institution in the East. The thanks of the Grand Lodge were voted to Sir John Day and a translation of His Highness's Letter was ordered to be copied on vellum and with the original, elegantly framed and glazed, hung up in the hall at every public meeting of the Society. [As this letter is replete with genuine good sense and warm benevolence, we shall here insert the translation for the gratification of our brethren:

' To the Right Worshipful His Grace the Duke of Manchester, Grand Master of the Illustrious and Benevolent Society of Free and Accepted Masons under the Constitution of England and the Great Lodge thereof.

Much honoured SIR and BRETHREN,

An Early knowledge and participation of the benefits arising to our house from its intimate union of councils and interests with the British nation and a deep veneration for the laws, constitution and manners of the latter, have, for many years of my life, led me to seize every opportunity of drawing the ties between us still closer and closer.

By the accounts which have reached me of the principles and practices of your Fraternity, nothing can be more pleasing to the Sovereign Ruler of the Universe whom we all, though in different ways, adore, or more honourable to his creatures, for they stand upon the broad basis of indiscriminate and universal benevolence.

Under this conviction, I had long wished to be admitted of your Fraternity, and now that I am initiated, I consider the title of an English Mason as one of the most honourable that I possess, for it is at once a cement of the friendship between your nation and me, the friend of mankind.

I have received from the advocate-general of Bengal Sir John Day, the very acceptable mark of attention and esteem with which you have favoured me, it has been presented with every circumstance of deference and respect that the situation of things here and the temper of the times would admit of, and I do assure your grace and the brethren at large, that he has done ample justice to the commission you have confided to him and has executed it in such manner as to do honour to himself and me.

I shall avail myself of a proper opportunity to convince your grace and the rest of the brethren, that Omdit-ul-Omrah is not an unfeeling Brother, or heedless of the precepts he has imbibed and that, while he testifies his love and esteem for his brethren, by strengthening the bonds of humanity, he means to minister to the wants of the distressed.

May the common Father of All, the one omnipotent and merciful God, take you into his holy keeping and give you health peace and length of years, prays your highly honoured and affectionate brother.


The first testimony which Omdit-ul-Omrah gave of his regard to the institution, was by the initiation of his brother Omur-ul-Omrah, who seems to be equally active with himself in promoting the welfare of the Society.

Another event has also taken place at Madras, which must be very satisfactory to the brethren of England. The division and secessions, which had originated in London in 1738, having unfortunately reached India, by the intervention of Brigadier General Horne, who had been appointed, by patent from the Duke of Cumberland Provincial Grand Master on the Coast of Coromandel, an union of the brethren in that part of the world has been affected and the lodge No. 152, styling themselves Ancient York Masons, joined a lodge under his auspices and voluntarily surrendered the constitution under which they had formerly acted. This desirable object being accomplished and the wishes of the brethren fulfilled, the General requested their assistance to form a Grand Lodge, when the following Officers were appointed and installed in due form.

Brigadier gen. Horne, Prov. Grand Master.

Ter. Gahagan esq. Deputy Grand Master.

Jof. Du Pre Porcher esq, Acting Grand Master.

Lieut. col. Rofs. Grand Architect.

Lieut. col. J Campbell, Sen, Grand Warden.

Lieut. col. Hamilton esq, Junior Grand Warden.

James Grierson esq, Grand Secretary.

James Amos esq, Grand Treasurer.

Lieutenant-Colonel Moorhouse and Colonel L Lucas esq. Grand Stewards.

Major Maule, Grand Orator.

Charles Bromley esq, Grand Sword Bearer.

The Grand Lodge having been regularly established, a proposal was made, that a new lodge should be formed in Madras, under the name of Perfect Unanimity, No. 1. This being unanimously agreed to, the Provincial Grand Master gave notice, that he should perform the ceremony of consecration on Saturday the 7th of October 1787, in commemoration of the union which had been so amicably formed that day and requested the proper officers to attend the occasion. Accordingly, on the morning of the day appointed upwards of fifty brethren assembled at the house of Choulty Plain, in which the public rooms are held and at half past eleven o'clock the ceremony commenced, After the preparatory business had been gone through in Grand Lodge, a procession was formed and marched three times round the lodge, after which the business of consecration was entered on and completed in a manner suitable to the solemnity of the occasion. Several old masons who were present, declared they never saw a ceremony conducted with more dignity and propriety.

 [Here follows the ORDER of the PROCESSION:

Two Tylers, with drawn swords.


Brothers Elphinstone and Moorhouse, Grand Stewards, with white wands.

Brother Gillespie, as youngest apprentice, carrying the rough stone.

Apprentices, two and two.

Fellow-crafts, two and two.

Master Masons, two and two.

Brothers Latham and Robson, as Secretary and Treasurer of the new lodge.


Brother Taner, carrying a silver pitcher with corn.

Brothers Gomond and Gorge, carrying pitchers, containing wine and oil.

Brothers Home and Horsiman, carrying two great lights.


Brothers Ross, Grand Architect, carrying the polished stone.

Brother Donaldson, (36th regiment,) as Grand Sword-Bearer, carrying the sword of state.

Brother Grierson, Grand Secretary, with his bag.

Brother Amos, Grand Treasurer, with his staff.

The LODGE, covered with white satin, carried by four Tylers.

The Worshipful Brother LUCAS, as Master of the new lodge, carrying the bible, compasses and square, on a crimson velvet cushion, supported by Brothers Dalrymple and Chase,

Assistant Stewards.

Brother Sir George Keith, carrying the silver censer.

Brother Maule, Grand Orator.

Third great light carried by Brother Gregory.

Brothers Campbell and Hamilton, Senior and Junior Grand Wardens, with their columns and truncheons.

Brother Porcher, Acting Grand Master.

Brother Sadlier, as Chief Magistrate.

Brother Sir Henry Cosby, carrying the Book of Constitutions. Brigadier General HORNE, Provincial Grand Master, supported by Brothers Howley and Harris, Assistant Stewards.]

The following brethren were installed as Officers of this new lodge, viz, Colly Lyons Lucas esq. Master, Pullier Spencer esq. Senior Warden, George Robert Latham esq, Junior Warden, George Maule esq. Secretary, John Robins esq. Treasurer.

At two o'clock, the brethren sat down at an excellent dinner, provided by the Grand Lodge, after which many masonic and loyal toasts were drunk and the day was concluded with that pleasing festivity, harmony and good fellowship, which has always distinguished the Society of Free and Accepted Masons.

We shall now return to the history of Masonry in England and recite the particulars which are most deserving attention. During the presidency of the Duke of Manchester, new lodges were constituted in different parts of England and considerable additions made to the general funds of the Society. The sums voted to distressed brethren far exceeded those of any former period and among other instances of liberality, may be specified a generous contribution of one hundred pounds, which was voted by the Grand Lodge towards the relief of our brethren in America, who had suffered great losses in consequence of the rebellion there and whose situation was very feelingly described in a letter from the Lodge No. 1, at Halifax, in Nova Scotia.

A singular proposition was made in Grand Lodge on the 8th of April 1778, that the Grand Master and his Officers should be distinguished in  future at all public meetings by robes. to be provided at their own expense and that Past Grand Officers should have the privilege of being distinguished in a similar manner. This measure was at first favourably received, but, on further investigation in the Hall Committee, to whom it was referred, it was found to be so diametrically opposite to the original plan of the institution, that it was very properly laid aside.

The finances of the Society occupied great part of the proceedings of the Committees and communications during His Grace's administration. The debts due on account of the hall appearing to be very considerable, it was determined to make an application to the lodges to raise £2,000 to pay them off. For this purpose in consequence of a plan offered to the consideration of the Grand Lodge in June 1779, it was resolved, that  a subscription should be opened, to raise money by loan, without interest, at the discretion of the subscribers, that £25 should be the sum limited for each subscriber and the number of subscribers to be one hundred and that the monies so subscribed should be repaid, in equal proportions, among the subscribers, at such times as the hall fund would admit. It was also determined, that an honorary medal should be presented to every subscriber, as a mark of distinction for the service which he had rendered the Society and that the bearer of such medal, if a master mason, should have the privilege of being present at and voting in, all the future meetings of the Grand Lodge. This mark of attention prompted some lodges, as well as individuals, to contribute and the greatest part of the money was speedily raised and applied for the purpose intended.

The Stewards Lodge, finding their finances much reduced be several members having withdrawn the annual subscriptions, applied to the Grand Lodge for relief, upon which it was resolved, that in future no Grand Officer should be appointed, who was not at the time a subscribing member of the Stewards Lodge.

A measure of more importance attracted the attention of the Society at this period. It had been observed with regret, that a number of worthy brethren in distress had been subjected to much inconvenience and disappointment from a want of relief during the long summer recess, as there was seldom any Committee of Charity held from the beginning of April to the end of October. To remedy this complaint, the Grand Lodge unanimously resolved, that an Extraordinary Committee should meet annually in the last week of August, to administer temporary relief to such distressed objects as might regularly apply, not exceeding five pounds to one person.

The business of the Society having of late very considerably increased, the Grand Lodge was induced to appoint, pro tempore, an assistant to the Grand Secretary, to hold equal rank and power with himself in the Grand Lodge. [The business is now conducted by one person as heretofore, who finds an assistant to act as Deputy, and a salary of 100l. per annum from the Charity and Hall funds jointly has been voted, out of which the Deputy's fee is paid.]

Among many regulations which were now established, it was determined, that in future no person should hold two offices at the same time in the Grand Lodge.

The Grand Lodge of Germany having applied for leave to send a representative to the Grand Lodge of England in order more effectually to cement the union and friendship of the brethren of both countries that he should have the privilege of nominating a peer of the realm as Acting Grand Master, who should be empowered to superintend the Society in his absence and that, at any future period, when the Fraternity might be honoured with a Prince of the Blood at their head, the same privilege should be granted.

At the annual grand feast on the 1st of May, 1782, the Duke of Cumberland was unanimously elected Grand Master and it being signified to the Society, that His Highness meant to appoint the Earl of Effingham Acting Grand Master, the appointment was confirmed and His Lordship presided as proxy for his Royal Highness during the feast.

On the 8th of January 1783, a motion was made in Grand Lodge and afterwards confirmed, that the interest of five per cent. on 1,000l. which had been advanced for the purposes of the hall from the charity fund, should cease to be paid and further, that the principal should be annihilated and sunk into the hall-fund. In consequence of this resolution, the money was regularly brought to account in the hall expenditures. Many other regulations were confirmed at this meeting, to render the hall-fund more productive and to enforce obedience to the laws respecting it. [The regulations established at this meeting were as follows:

1. That no Brother initiated since October 29, 1768, shall be appointed to the honour of wearing a blue or red apron, unless the Grand Secretary certifies that his name has been registered and the fees paid.

2. That no brother initiated since that time shall be appointed Master or Warden of a lodge, or be permitted to attend any committee of charity, or grand lodge, unless his name has been registered and the fees paid.

3. That every petitioner for charity, initiated since that time, shall set forth in his petition the lodge in which and the time when, he was made a Mason, in order that the Grand Secretary may certify, by endorsement on the back of the petition, whether his name has been registered and the fees paid.

4. That every Lodge shall transmit to the Grand Secretary, on or before the grand feast in every year, a list of all persons initiated, or members admitted, together with the registering fees, or notice that they have not initiated or admitted any, that their silence may not be imputed to contempt.

5. That to prevent the plea of ignorance or forgetfulness a blank form shall be printed and sent to each lodge, to be filled up and returned to the Grand Secretary.

6. That the Grand Secretary shall lay before the first quarterly communication after each grand feast, an account of such lodges as have not registered their members within the preceding year, that they may be erased from the list of lodges or be otherwise dealt with as the Grand Lodge may think expedient.

7. That to prevent any injury to individuals, by being excluded from the privileges of the Society through the neglect of their lodges, in their names not having been duly registered, any brethren, on producing sufficient proofs that they have paid the due registering fees to their lodges, shall be capable of enjoying all the privileges of the Society, but the offending lodges shall be rigorously proceeded against for detaining fees that are the property of the Society.

On the 20th of March 1788, an additional regulation was made, 'That ten shillings and sixpence be paid to the Grand Lodge for registering the name of every Mason initiated in any Lodge under the Constitution after the 5th of May, 1788.' And at this meeting another resolution passed, 'That no Lodge should be permitted to attend or vote in Grand Lodge, which had not complied with this regulation.']

In compliment to the Grand Lodge of Germany, Brother Leonhardi was permitted to wear the clothing of a Grand Officer and rank next to the Past Grand Officers in all public meetings of the Society.

This additional cement was highly pleasing and led the brethren to regret, that no intercourse or correspondence should have subsisted nearer home, between the Grand Lodge of England and the Grand Lodges of Scotland and Ireland thought all the members were subjects of the same sovereign. At the communication in April 1782, this important business came under consideration, when, after a variety of opinions had been delivered, it was unanimously resolved, that the Grand Master should be requested to adopt such means as his wisdom might suggest, to promote a good understanding among the brethren of the three united Kingdoms. Notwithstanding this resolution, the wished for union has not yet been accomplished, we trust, however, that the event is not far distant.

At this meeting also, the pleasing intelligence was communicated, of the Duke of Cumberland's intention to accept the government of the Society. This having been regularly stated in Grand Lodge, His Highness was proposed Grand Master elect and it was resolved, in compliment to him, that he should have the privilege of nominating a peer of the realm as Acting Grand Master, who should be empowered to superintend the Society in his absence and that, at any future period, when the fraternity might be honoured with a Prince of the Blood at their head, the same privilege should be granted.

At the annual grand feast on the 1st of May 1782, the Duke of Cumberland was unanimously elected Grand Master and it being signified to the Society that his highness meant to appoint the Earl of Effingham Acting Grand Master, that the appointment was confirmed and His Lordship presided as proxy for His Royal Highness during the feast.

On the 8th of January 1783, a very singular motion was made in Grand Lodge and afterward confirmed, that the interest of five percent on £1,000 which had been advanced for the purposes of the hall from the charity fund, should cease to be paid and further, that the principal should be annihilated and sunk into the hall fund. However extraordinary it may appear, this event took place and the money has been regularly brought to account in the hall expendititures. A number of other regulations were confirmed at this meeting, to render the hall fund more productive and to enforce obedience to the laws respecting it. How far some of the regulations are consistent with the original plan of the masonic institution must be left to abler judges to determine. In Earlier periods of our history, such compulsory regulations were unnecessary.

At the Grand Lodge held on the 23rd of November 1783, an addition was made to the Grand Officers, by the appointment of a Grand Portrait Painter and at the request of the Duke of Manchester, that honor was conferred on the Rev. William Peters, in testimony of the service which he had rendered to the Society, by his elegant portrait of Lord Petre.

During the remainder of the year, there was scarcely any further business of importance transacted. On the 19th of November, information was given in Grand Lodge, that two brethren, under sanction of the Royal Military lodge at Woolwich, which claimed the privilege of an itinerant lodge, had lately held an irregular meeting  in the King's Bench prison and had there unwarrantably initiated sundry person into masonry. The Grand Lodge, conceiving this to be a violent infringement of the privileges of every regular constituted lodge, ordered the said lodge to be erased from the list and determined, that it was inconsistent with the purposes of making, passing and raising masons, in a prison or place of confinement.

At this Grand Lodge also, it was resolved, to enact certain regulations, subjecting the Deputy Grand Master and Grand Wardens to fines, in case of non-attendance on the public meetings of the Society and these regulations were confirmed on the 11th February following.

While those proceedings were carrying on in England the brethren in Scotland were prosecuting their labours also for the good of the craft. The vast improvements made in the city of Edinburgh, afforded ample room for ingenious architects to display their masonic talent and abilities and there the operative part of the fraternity were fully occupied, in rearing stately mansions and planning elegant squares.

On the 1st of August 1785, a very pleasing sight was exhibited to every well wisher to the embellishment of that city, in the ceremony of laying the foundation stone of the South Bridge, being the first step to farther improvement. In the morning of that day, the Right Hon. the Lord Provost and Magistrates, attended by the Grand Master Mason of Scotland and a number of nobility and gentry, with the masters, office bearers and brethren of the several lodges, walked from the Parliament House to the bridge in procession. The streets were lined by the 58th regiment and the city guard.  [The following Order of Procession was observed:

The proper Officers, bearing the city insignia.

The right hon. Lord Provost and Magistrates.

Band of instrumental music.

A band of singers.

The lodges according to seniority, brethren walKing three and three.

Lodge of Grand Stewards.

Nobility and Gentry, three and three.

Office-bearers of the Grand Lodge, in their badges of office.

Officers of the Grand Lodge, with insignia.

Grand Wardens.

Deputy G. Master

GRAND MASTER {  Substitute) ]

Lord Haddo, Grand Master, having arrived at the place, laid the foundation stone with the usual solemnities. His Lordship standing on the east, with the Substitute on his right hand and the Grand Wardens on the west, the square, the plumb, the level and the mallet, were successively delivered by an operative mason to the Substitute and by him to the Grand Master, who applied the square to that part of the stone which was square, the plumb to the level edges, the level above the stone in several positions and then with the mallet gave three knocks, saying' "May the Grand Architect of the Universe grant a blessing on this foundation stone, which we have now laid and by his providence enable us to finish this and every other work which may be undertaken for the embellishment and advantage of this city." On this the brethren gave the honours.

The cornucopia and two silver vessels were then brought from the table and delivered, the cornucopia to the Substitute and the two vessels to the Wardens, which were successively presented to the Grand Master, who, according to ancient form, scattered the corn and poured the wine and oil, which they contained, on the stone saying, "May the All-bounteous Author of Nature bless this city with an abundance of corn, wine and oil,  and with all the necessaries, conveniences and comforts of life and may the same Almighty power preserve this city from ruin and decay to the latest posterity!"

The Grand Master, being supported on the right hand by the Duke of Buccleugh and on the left by the Earl of Balcarras, addressed himself to the Lord Provost and the Magistrates in a suitable speech for the occasion. The coins of the present reign and a silver plater, with the following inscription, was deposited within the stone.


























Translation :-

"By the blessing of Almighty God, in the reign of George the Third, the Father of his country, the Right Hon. George, Lord Haddo, Grand Master of the Most ancient Fraternity of Free Masons in Scotland amidst the acclamation of a Grand Assembly of the brethren and a vast concourse of people, laid the first stone of this bridge, intended to form a convenient communication between the city of Edinburgh and its suburbs and an access not unworthy of such a city.

This work, so useful to the inhabitants, so pleasing and convenient to strangers, so ornamental to the city, so creditable to the country, so long and much wanted and wished for, was at last begun, with the sanction of the King and Parliament of Great Britain and with universal approbation, in the provestship of James Hunter Blair, the author and indefatigable promoter of the undertaking, August the 1st, in the year of our Lord, 1785 and of the era of Masonry 5785, which may God prosper."

An anthem was then sung and the procession returned, reversed, to the Parliament House. After which the Lord Provost and Magistrates gave an elegant entertainment at Dunn's rooms to the Grand Lodge and the nobility and gentry, who had assisted in the ceremony.

The public ceremony in which the society bore a principal share, was in laying the foundation stone of that valuable seminary of learning , the new College of Edinburgh. this University has for many years been esteemed one of the most celebrated in Europe and has attracted a great number of students of physic and other branches of science, from all parts of the world. The eminence of its professors in every branch of learning is universally admitted and it is most fervently so be wished, for the honour of the Kingdom, that the whole plan may be completely executed agreeably to the intention of the original promoters. as this is an event worth of record in the annals of masonry, I shall describe minutely the ceremony observed on that remarkable occasion.

On the 13th of October 1789, Mr Robert Adam, architect, presented the plans of the intended building, at a public breakfast given by the Lord Provost, to the Magistrates, the Principal and the Professors of the University, of Edinburgh, on the occasion and explained their uses for the various schools, halls and houses. The whole company expressed the highest satisfaction at the design and it was immediately resolved, that a subscription should be opened to carry the plan into execution. Monday the 16th of November was then fixed for laying the foundation stone of the new structure.

On the morning of the day appointed for performing the ceremony, the brethren assembled at eleven o'clock in the Parliament-house, to meet Lord Napier, at that time Grand Master of Scotland. When the lodges were arranged, the Grand Master sent notice to the Lord Provost and Magistrates, who had assembled in the Council Chamber and to the Principal, Professors and Student of the University, who had met in the High Church. At half past twelve, the procession began to move in the following order:

1st. The Principal, Professors and Students of the University, with their mace carried before them. Principal Robertson being supported on the right hand by the Rev. Dr Hunter, Professor of Divinity and on the left, by Dr Handy, Professor of Church History. The Professors were all robed and each of the Students had a sprig of laurel in his hat.

2nd. The Lord Provost, Magistrates and Council, in their robes, preceded by the sword, mace, etc. The Lord Provost being supported on the right and left by the two eldest Baillies.

3rd. A complete choir of Singers, under the direction of singer Scherky, singing anthems as the procession moved.

4th. The Lodges, according to seniority, juniors preceding, with their different insignia.

5th.  A complete band of instrumental music.

6th. The Grand Stewards, properly clothed, with white rods.

7th. The Noblemen and Gentlemen attending the Grand Master.

8th. A large drawing of the East Front of the New College, carried by two operative masons.

9th. The grand jewels, borne by Past Masters of lodges.

10th. Officers of the Grand Lodge, properly clothed.

11th. Past Grand Masters.

12th. Lord Napier, present Grand Master, supported on the right hand by Sir William Forbes Bart, Past Grand Master and on the left, by the Duke of Buccleugh.

A detachment of the 35th regiment from the castle, together with the city guard, lined the streets.

At one o'clock, the Grand Master reached the site of the College, when the foundation stone was laid with the usual ceremononies. [The particulars of this part of the ceremony were exactly similar to that observed at laying the foundation stone of the South Bridge]

After which the Grand Master addressed himself to the Lord Provost and Magistrates as follows:  "My Lord Provost and Magistrates, of the City of Edinburgh.

In compliance with your request, I have now had the honour, in the capacity of Grand Master Mason of Scotland to lend my aid towards laying that stone on which it is your intention to erect a new College. I must ever consider it a sign of the fortunate events in my life, that the Craft of Free and Accepted Masons should be called forth, to assist at an undertaKing so laudableand so glorious, during the time that, from their affections, I have the honour of sitting in the chair of the Grand Lodge.

The attention to the improvement of this city, manifested by the Magistrates, your predecessors in office, has for many years, excited the admiration of their fellow-citizens. The particular exertions of your Lordship and your Colleagues have meritedand it give me infinite satistfaction to say, have obtained, the universal approbation of all ranks of men.

The business of, this day, equally to be remembered in the annals of this city and of masonry, will transmit your name with lustre to posterity. Thousands yet unborn, learning to admire your virtues, will thereby be stimulated to follow the great example you have set them, of steady patriotism, love of your countryand anxious deSire to advance the welfareand increase the fame of the city of Edinburgh.

In the name of the Craft of Free and Accepted Masonsand in my own, I sincerely implore the protection of the Supreme Architect of the Universe on your Lordship and your brethren in the Magistracy! May you long continue here the ornaments of civil societyand may you hereafter be received into those mansions, those lodges, prepared in heaven for the blessed."

To this address the Lord Provost, in the name of the Magistrates and Town Council of the City of Edinburgh, mad a suitable reply.


The Grand Master next addressed the Principal as representing the University of Edinburgh, as follows:  "Reverend Sir,

Permit me to congratulate you, as Principal and your brethren, as Professors, of the University of Edinburgh, on the work which we have this day been engaged. -- A work, worthy of your Patrons, who (ever considering the public good) will not permit the seat of learning, established in this ancient metropolis, to bear the appearance of decay, at a time when so much attention is bestowed on the elegance and convenience both of public and private edifices.

Permit me, likewise, to congratulate my country, on the probability of seeing the different chairs of the magnificent structure now to be erected, filled by men so distinguished for their piety, so eminent for their learning and so celebrated for their abilities, as those to whom I now have the honour to address myself.

Any panegyric that I can pronounce, must fall so far short of what is due to you, Sir and your honourable and learned brethren, that it would be presumption in me to attempt to express my sense of your deserts. Suffice it to say that the Grand Lodge of Scotland and the lodges depending on it, are most happy, in having this opportunity of assisting at and witnessing, the laying of the foundation, whence it is their earnest wish a building may arise, which, in future ages may be renowned for the excellence of its teachers and as much respected for the propriety of conduct in its students, as the University now is, over which you have the peculiar satisfaction of presiding.

May the Almighty Architect, the Sovereign Disposer of all events, grant, that the Principal and Professors of this College may continue to deliver their instructions and the Students to receive their admonitions, in such a manner as may rebound to the glory of God, the promoting of science and the extension of all useful learning."

 To which the Rev. Principal made the following reply :-  

 "My Lord,

From very humble beginnings, the University of Edinburgh has attained to such eminence, as entitles it to be ranked among the most celebrated seminaries of learning. Indebted to the bounty of several of our Sovereigns -distinguished particularly by the gracious Prince now seated on the British throne, whom with gratitude, we reckon among the most munificent of our royal benefactors - and cherished by the continued attention and good offices of our honourable Patrons, this University can no boast of the number and variety of its institutions for the instruction of youth in all the branches of literature and science.

With what integrity and discernment persons have been chosen to preside in each of these departments, the character of my learned colleagues affords the most satisfying evidence. From confidence in their abilities and assiduity in discharging the duties of their respective offices, the University of Edinburgh has become a seat of education, not only to the youth in every part of the British dominions, but, to the honour of our country, students have been attracted to it from almost every nation in Europe and every state in America.

One thing still was wanting, The apartments appropriate for the accommodation of Professors and Students were so extremely unsuitable to the flourishing state of the University, that it has long  been the general wish to have buildings more decent and convenient erected. What your Lordship has now done, gives a near prospect of having this wish accomplished and we consider it as a most auspicious circumstance, that the foundation stone of this new mansion of science is laid by your Lordship, who, among your ancestors, reckon a man, whose original and universal genius places him high among the illustrious persons who have contributed most eminently to enlarge the boundaries of human knowledge

Permit me to add, what I regard as my own peculiar felicity, that of having remained in my present station much longer than any of my predecessors, I have lived to witness an event so beneficial to this University, the prosperity of which is near to my heart and has ever been the object of my warmest wishes.

May Almighty God, without invocation of whom no action of importance should be begun, bless this undertaking and enable us to carry it on with success! May he continue to protect our University, the object of whose institution is to instill into the minds of youth, principles of sound knowledge, to inspire them with the love of religion and virtue and to prepare them for filling the various situations in society, with honour to themselves and with benefit to their country!

All this we ask, in the name of Christ and unto the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit, we ascribe the Kingdom, power and glory! Amen!"

After the Principal had finished his speech, the brethren again gave the honours, which concluded the ceremony.

Two crystal bottles, cast on purpose at the glass house of Leith, were deposited in the foundation stone. In one of these were put different coins of the present reign, each of which were previously enveloped in crystal, in such an ingenious manner that the legend on the coins could be distinctly read without breaking the crystal., In the other bottle were deposited seven rolls of vellum, containing a short account of the original foundation and present state of the University, together with several other papers, in particular, the different newspapers, containing advertisements relative to the college, etc and a list of the names of the present Lord Provost and Magistrates and Officer of the Grand Lodge of Scotland. The bottles being carefully sealed up, were covered with a plate of copper wrapt in block tin and upon the under side of the copper, were engraven the arms of the city of Edinburgh and of the University, likewise the arms of the Right Hon. Lord Napier, Grand Master Mason of Scotland. Upon the upper side, a Latin inscription, of which the following is a copy:





















Q. F. F. Q. S.

Translation :- "By the Blessing of Almighty God, In the reign of the most munificent Prince George III, The buildings of the University of Edinburgh, being originally very mean and now, after two centuries, almost a ruin. The Right Hon. Francis Lord Napier, Grand Master of the Fraternity of Free Masons of Scotland Amidst the acclamations of the people, laid the foundation stone of this new fabric, In which an union of elegance with conveniences, suitable to the dignity of learning, Has been studied, On the 16th day of November in the year of our Lord 1789 And in the era of Masonry 5789

Thomas Elder being the Lord Provost of the City, William Robertson, the Principal of the University and Robert Adam the Architect.

May the undertaking prosper and be crowned with success.”

An anthem having been sung, the brethren returned, the whole procession being reversed and when the junior lodge arrived at the door of the Parliament House, it fell back to the right and left, within the lines of soldiers, when the Principal, Professors and Students, the Lord Provost, Magistrates and Town Council and the Grand Lodge, passed though, with their hats off.

The procession on this occasion was one of the most brilliant and numerous that ever was exhibited in the city of Edinburgh. The Provost and Magistrates had very properly invited many of the Nobility and Gentry from all parts of the country, to witness the solemnity of laying the foundation stone of a college, the architecture of which, it is agreed by all who have seen the plan, will not only do honour to the city, but to the nation of Europe. But the number of persons invited was far exceeded by the immense multitude of all ranks, who, desirous of viewing so magnificent a spectacle, filled the streets, windows and even roofs of the houses, all the way from the Parliament close, down the High Street and Bridge Street, near the fourth end of which the foundation- stone was laid. above 20,000 were supposed to be witnesses of this ceremony. It is, however, worthy of notice, that, notwithstanding so immense a crowd, the greatest order and decency were observed, nor did the smallest accident happen.

On the 7th of January 1795, the brethren in Scotland had another opportunity of exemplifying their skill in the practical rules of the Art, at opening the new bridge for carriages at Montrose. This undertaking had been long deeded impracticable, on account of the extent being near half a mile across a rapid influx and reflux of the sea. The important work, however, was happily accomplished under the superintendence of the fraternity and the great post road from the fourth to the north of Scotland is now united. A public procession was formed on this occasion when the Grand Master, amidst an immense concourse of people, critically examined the work and declared it well built and ably executed.

Having described the principal works in which the brethren in Scotland have been employed, we shall now resume the history of masonry in England and trace the occurrences that have taken place there, under the auspices of the Duke of Cumberland and his successor the Prince of Wales.

On Thursday the 9th of March 1786, his Royal Highness Prince William Henry, now Duke of Clarence, was initiated into Masonry at the Lodge No. 86, held at the Prince George Inn, at Plymouth.

On the 4th of January 1787, was opened in London, the Grand Chapter of Harodim. Though this order is of ancient date and had been patronised in different parts of Europe, previous to this period, there appears not on record the regular establishment of such an association in England. For some years it was faintly encouraged, but since its merit has been further investigated, it has received the patronage of the most exalted masonic characters and under the patronage of Lord Macdonald, meets regularly at Free Masons Tavern on the 3rd Monday of January, February, March, April, October, November and December, at which meetings any member of a regular lodge may be admitted by ticket as a visitor, to hear the lectures of masonry judiciously illustrated.  The mysteries of this order are peculiar to the institution itself, while the lectures of the Chapter include every branch of the masonic system and represent the art of masonry in a finished and complete form.

Different classes are established and particular lectures restricted to each class. The lectures are divided into sections and the sections into clauses. the sections are annually assigned by the Chief Harod, to a certain number of is skilful companions in each class, who are denominated Sectionists and they are empowered to distribute the clauses of their respective sections, with the approbation of the Chief Harod and General Director, among certain private companions of the Chapter, who are denominated Clause Holders. Such companions as by assiduity become possessed of all the sections in the lecture, are called Lecturers and out of these the General Director is always chosen.

Every Clause holder, on his appointment, is presented with a ticket, signed by the Chief Harod, specifying the clause allotted to him. This ticket entitles him to enjoy the rank and privileges of a Clause Holder of the Chapter and no Clause Holder can transfer his ticket to the another Companion, unless the consent of the Council has been obtained for that purpose and the Director General shall have approved the Companion to whom it is to be transferred, as qualified to hold it. In case of the death, sickness, or non-residence in London, of any Lecturer, Sectionist or Clause Holder, another Companion is immediately appointed to fill up the vacancy, that the lectures may be always complete and once in every month, during the session, a public lecture is delivered, in a masterly manner, in open Chapter.

 The Grand-Chapter is governed by a Grand Patron, two Vice Patrons, a Chief Ruler and two Assistants, with a Council of twelve respectable Companions, chosen annually at the Chapter nearest to the festival of St John the Evangelist.

On Thursday the 6th of February, 1787, his Royal Highness, The Prince of Wales was made a Mason, at an occasional Lodge, convened for the purpose, at the Star and Garter Tavern, Pallmall, over which the late Duke of Cumberland presided in person. And on Friday the 21st of November following, His Royal Highness the Duke of York was initiated into Masonry, at a special Lodge convened for the purpose, at the same place, over which the Grand Master also presided in person. His Highness was introduced by his Royal brother, the Prince of Wales, who assisted at the ceremony of his initiation.

On the 25th of March, 1788, another event, worthy of notice in the annals of Masonry, took place, the institution of the Royal Cumberland Freemasons' School, for maintaining, clothing and educating the female children and orphans of indigent brethren. To the benevolent exertions of the Chevalier Bartholomew Ruspini, the Fraternity are first indebted for this establishment. Under the patronage of Her Royal Highness, the Duchess of Cumberland the school was originally formed and to her fostering hand was owing its present flourishing state, by her recommending it to the Royal Family, as well as to many of the nobility and gentry of both sexes. On the 1st of January 1789, fifteen children were taken into a house provided for them at Somers Town, St. Pancras, but since that time, by the liberal encouragement, which the charity received from the Fraternity in India as well as in England the Governors have been enabled to augment the number of children at different periods to sixty-five.

The object of this Charity is to train up children in the knowledge of virtue and religion, in an Early detestation of vice and its unhappy consequences, in industry, as necessary to their condition and to impress strongly in their minds, a due sense of subordination, true humility and obedience to their superiors.

In 1793, the Governors, anxious still farther to extend the benefits of this Institution, hired on lease a piece of ground in St George's Fields belonging to the City of London, on which they have erected as commodious and spacious school-house at the expense of upwards of £2500 into which the children are now removed. This building is sufficiently extensive to accommodate an hundred children and from the exertions of the fraternity at home an abroad, there is every reason to hope that the Governors will soon have it in their power to provide for that number.

This Charity is under the immediate supervision of Her Royal Highness, the Duchess of Cumberland the patroness, their Royal Highnesses, The Prince of Wales, the Duke of York and the Duke of Gloucester, the Patrons, Chevalier Bartholomew Ruspini, the Institutor, the Right Hon. Lord Macdonald, James Heseltine, James Galloway, William Birch, William Addington esqs. the Trusteesand Sir Peter Parker, Bart, the Treasurer.

 [Abstract of the general Principles upon which this Charity is conducted and the Qualifications and Privileges of a Governor.

1. Every person subscribing one guinea annually, is deemed a Governor, or Governess, during the time such subscription is continued.

2. Every subscriber of ten guineas, or upwards is deemed a Governor or Governess for life, and such Governor is a Member of the General Committee.

3. The Master for the time being of any lodge subscribing one guinea annually, is deemed a Governor during that time.

4. The Master for the time being of any lodge subscribing ten guineas, is a member of the Committee for fifteen years, and on such lodge paying the further sum of ten guineas within the space of ten years, such Master for the time being is a Governor and member of the Committee, so long as such lodge exists.

5. The Master for the time being of any lodge subscribing twenty guineas, is a perpetual Governor, so long as such lodge exists.

6. Any subscriber who has already made a benefaction of ten guineas, or the Master of any lodge who has contributed twenty guineas and chooses to repeat such donation, is entitled to the privilege of a second vote on all questions relative to the Charity.

7. The executor of any person paying a legacy of one hundred pounds for the use of the Charity, is deemed a Governor for life, and in case a legacy of two hundred pounds, or upwards, be paid for the use of the Charity, then all the executors proving the will are deemed Governors for life.

8. Every Governor has a right to vote at all Quarterly and Special Courts, and every Nobleman, Member of Parliament, Lady, Master of a country lodge and Governor not residing within the bills of mortality, have a right to vote by proxy, at all ballots and elections, but no person, being an annual Governor, can be permitted to vote at any election until the subscription for the current year (and arrears, if any) are paid to the Treasurer.

9. Any Governor supplying this Institution with any article, wherefrom any emolument may arise, shall not vote on any question relative thereto, nor can such Governor be a member of any Committee whatever during the time he serves the Charity.]

To the benevolent and indefatigable exertion of William Forsteen, Anthony Ten Broeke, Adam Gordon, Henry Spicer, esqs. and a few other respectable brethren, the Society are principally indebted for the complete establishment if this truly laudable Institution and such have been the care and pains bestowed on the education of the children, that the sum arising from their work for the last year has exceeded £200.

On the 10th of February, 1790, the Grand Lodge voted an annual subscription of 25l. to this Charity and particularly recommended it to the lodges as deserving encouragement, in consequence of which considerable sums have been raised for its support and among the very liberal subscriptions from the lodges, the Shakespeare Lodge at Covent Garden, under William Forsteen esq. is particularly distinguished, having, as a lodge and from individuals belonging to it, paid above a thousand pounds to the fund. From these donations and the increase of annual contributions, an Institution, which reflects great honour on the Fraternity, promises fair to have a permanent establishment.

The late Duke of Cumberland continued in the office of Grand Master till his death in September, 1790, when it may be truly said, that such a valuable acquisition was made to the Society during his royal highness's administration, as is almost unparalleled in the annals of Masonry.

On the 10th of February 1790, regular notice was given in Grand Lodge, that his royal highness prince Edward, now Duke of Kent, while on his travels, had been regularly initiated into Masonry in the Union Lodge at Geneva and we are since credibly informed, that his royal highness prince Augustus Frederick, now Duke of Sussex, has been likewise initiated into the Order at a Lodge in Berlin.

The Grand Lodge, highly sensible of the great honour conferred on the Society by the initiation of so many royal personages, unanimously resolved, that each of them should be presented with an apron, lined with blue silk, the clothing of a Grand Officer and that they should be placed, in all public meetings of the Society, on the right hand of the Grand Master and rank in all processions as Past Grand Masters.

On the 2d of May, 1790, the grand feast was honoured with the presence of the Duke of Cumberland, the Grand Master, in the chair, attended by his royal nephews, the Prince of Wales and the Dukes of York and Clarence, with above five hundred other brethren. At this Grand Assembly was confirmed the re-instatement of the members of the Lodge of Antiquity in all their masonic privileges, after an unfortunate separation of ten years and among those who were reinstated, the Author of this treatise had the honour to be included.

On the 24th of November, 1790, His Royal Highness, The Prince of Wales was elected to the high and important office of Grand Master and he was pleased to appoint Lord Rawdon (now Earl of Moira) Acting Grand Master, who had previously filled that office under his late royal uncle, on the resignation of the Earl of Effingham, who went abroad on his accepting the Governorship of Jamaica.

On the 9th of February 1791, the Grand Lodge resolved, on the motion of Lord Petre, that in testimony of the high sense the Fraternity entertained of the honour done to the Society by his royal highness the prince of Wales's acceptance of the office of Grand Master, three elegant chairs and candlesticks should be provided for the use of the Grand Lodge and at the grand feast in May following, these were accordingly finished and presented to public view, but, unfortunately, the Grand Master's indisposition at that time prevented him from honouring the Society with his presence. Lord Rawdon, however, officiated as proxy for His Royal Highness, who was re-elected with the most joyful acclamations.


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