New Page 1
8 and 9 of the Book-4 of the Illustrations of Masonry are posted hereunder. The
footnotes have been incorporated at the appropriate places of the main text and
enclosed within brackets. Detailed description of the Foundation Stone laying
Ceremony has been mentioned in the 9 th Section.]
W.Bro. William Preston
Past Master of the Lodge of Antiquity (No.1)
Section. 8. History of Masonry from its Revival in the South of
England till the Death of King George I.
reputation of the Society being now established, many noblemen and
gentlemen of the first rank desired to be received into the lodges, which had
increased considerably during the administration of Mr. Payne. The duties of
masonry were found to be a pleasing relaxation from the fatigue of business and
in the lodge, uninfluenced by politics or party, a happy union was effected
among the most respectable characters in the Kingdom.
the 24th of June 1721, Grand Master Payne and his wardens, with the former grand
officers and the masters and wardens of twelve lodges, met the Grand Master
elect at the Queen's Arms Tavern in St. Paul's Church-yard, where the Grand
Lodge was opened in ample form. [The old Lodge of St. Paul's, now the Lodge of
Antiquity, having been removed thither].
Having confirmed the proceedings of the last Grand Lodge, several gentlemen were
initiated into masonry at the request of the Duke of Montague and among the
rest, Philip Lord Stanhope, afterwards Earl of Chesterfield. From the Queen's
Arms the Grand Lodge marched in procession in their clothing to Stationers Hall
in Ludgate street, where they joyfully received by one hundred and fifty
brethren, properly clothed. The Grand Master having made the first procession
round the hall, took an affectionate leave of his brethren and being returned to
his place, proclaimed the Duke of Montague his successor for the ensuing year.
The general regulations compiled by Mr. Payne in 1721 [See the Book of Constitutions printed in 1723.] and
compared with the ancient records and immemorial usages of the fraternity, were
read and met with general approbation, after which Dr. Desaguliers delivered an
elegant oration on the subject of masonry.
after his election, the Grand Master gave convincing proofs of his zeal and
attention, by commanding Dr. Desaguliers and James Anderson, A. M men of genius
and education, to revise, arrange and digest the Gothic constitutions, old
charges and general regulations. This task they faithfully executed and at the
ensuing Grand Lodge held at the Queen's Arms St. Paul's Churchyard on the 27th
of December 1721, being the festival of St. John the Evangelist, they presented
the same for approbation. A committee of fourteen learned brothers was then
appointed to examine the manuscript and to make their report and on this
occasion several very entertaining lectures were delivered and much useful
information given by some old brethren.
a Grand Lodge held at the Fountain Tavern in the Strand in ample form, on the
25th March 1722, the committee reported, that they had perused the manuscript,
containing the history, charges, regulations, etc. of masonry and after some
amendments, had approved thereof. The Grand Lodge ordered the whole to be
prepared for the press and printed with all possible expedition. This order was
strictly obeyed and in little more than two years the Book of Constitutions
appeared in print, under the following title: "The Book of Constitutions of
the Free Masons: containing the History, Charges, Regulations, etc, of that Most
Ancient and Right Worshipful Fraternity. For the Use of the Lodges."
January 1722-3, the Duke of Montague resigned in favour of the Duke of Wharton,
who was very ambitious to attain the office. His Grace's resignation proceeded
from the motive of reconciling the brethren to this nobleman, who had incurred
their displeasure, by having convened, in opposition to the resolutions of the
Grand Lodge, on the 25th of March, an irregular assembly of masons at
Stationers' hall, on the festival of St. John the Baptist, in order to get
himself elected as Grand Master. The Duke of Wharton, fully sensible of the
impropriety of his conduct, publicly acknowledged his error and promising in
future a strict conformity and obedience to the resolutions of the Society, was,
with the general consent of the brethren, approved as Grand Master elect for the
ensuing year. His Grace was regularly invested and installed on the 17th
January 1722-3 by the Grand Master and congratulated by upwards of twenty five
lodges, who were present in the Grand Lodge on that day. The
diligence and attention
of the Duke of Wharton to the duties of his office soon recovered and
established his reputation in the Society, while under his patronage masonry
made a considerable progress in the South of England. During his presidency, the
office of Grand Secretary was first established and William Cowper esq. being
appointed, that gentleman executed the duties of the department several years.
Duke of Buccleugh succeeded the Duke of Wharton in 1723. This nobleman was no
less attached to masonry than his predecessor. Being absent on the annual
festival, he was installed by proxy at Merchant
Taylors Hall, in presence of 400
masons.His Grace was succeeded in the following year by the Duke of Richmond,
under whose administration the Committee of Charity was instituted.
[The Duke of Buccleugh first
proposed the scheme of raising a general fund for distressed Masons. Lord
Paisley, Dr. Desaguliers, Colonel Houghton and a few other brethren, supported
the Duke's proposition, and the Grand Lodge appointed a committee to consider of
the most effectual means of carrying the scheme into execution. The report of
the committee was transmitted to the lodges and afterwards approved by the Grand
Lodge. The disposal of the charity was first vested in seven brethren, but this
number being found too small, nine more were added. It was afterwards resolved
that twelve Masters of contributing lodges, in rotation, with the Grand
Officers, should form the Committee, and by another regulation since made, it
has been determined that all Past and Present Grand Officers, with the Masters
of all regular lodges which shall have contributed within twelve months to the
charity, shall be members of the Committee. The Committee meets four times in
the year, by virtue of a summons from the Grand Master or his Deputy. The
petitions of the brethren who apply for charity are considered at these meetings
and if the petitioner be found a deserving object, he is immediately relieved
with five pounds.
If the circumstances of this case are of a peculiar
nature, his petition is referred to the next Communication, where he is relieved
with any sum the committee may have specified, not exceeding twenty guineas at
one time. By these means the distressed have always found ready relief from this
general charity, which is solely supported by the voluntary contributions of
different lodges out of their private funds, without being burdensome on any
member of the society.
Thus the Committee of Charity has been established
among the Free and Accepted Masons in London, and though the sums annually
expended to relieve distressed brethren have, for several years past, amounted
to many thousand pounds, there still remains a considerable sum in reserve,
which is continually accumulating by fresh contributions. All complaints and information
are considered at the Committee of Charity, from which a report is
made to the next Grand Lodge, where it is generally approved.]
Paisley, afterwards Earl of Abercorn, being active in promoting this new
establishment, was elected Grand Master in the end of the year 1725. Being in
the country at the time, His Lordship was installed by proxy. During his
absence, Dr. Desaguliers, who had been appointed his deputy, was very attentive
to the duties of his office, by visiting the lodges and diligently promoting
masonry. On his Lordship's return to town, the Earl of Inchiquin was proposed to
succeed him and was elected in February 1726. The Society now flourished in town
and country and under the patronage of this nobleman the Art was propagated with
considerable success. This period was rendered remarkable, by the brethren of
Wales first uniting under the banner of the Grand Lodge of London. In Wales are
some venerable remains of ancient masonry and many stately ruins of castles,
executed in the Gothic style, which evidently demonstrate that the fraternity
must have met with encouragement in that part of the island in former times.
Soon after this happy union, the office of Provincial Grand Master was
instituted and the first deputation granted by Earl Inchiquin, on the 10th of
May 1727, to Hugh Warburton esq. for North Wales and on the 24th of June
following, to Sir Edward Mansell Bart. for South Wales.
Provincial Grand Master is the immediate representative of the Grand Master in
the district over which he is limited to preside, and being invested with the
power and honour of a Deputy Grand Master in his province, may constitute lodges
therein, if the consent of the Masters and Wardens of three lodges already
constituted within his district have been obtained and the Grand Master has not
disapproved thereof. He wears the clothing of a Grand Officer and ranks in all
public assemblies immediately after Past Deputy Grand Masters. He must, in
person or by Deputy, attend the meetings of the Masters and Wardens of the
lodges in his district and transmit to the Grand Lodge, once in every year, the
proceedings of those meetings, with a regular state of the lodges under his
jurisdiction. His officers are permitted to wear an apron lined with blue silk,
within the province, but that privilege does not extend beyond it]
The lodges in the country now began
to increase and deputations were granted to several gentlemen, to hold the
office of Provincial Grand Master in different parts of England as well as in
some places abroad where lodges had been constituted by English masons. During
the Earl of Inchiquin's mastership, a warrant was issued for opening a new lodge
at Gibraltar. Among the variety of noble edifices
which were finished during the presidency of this nobleman, was that excellent
structure the church of St. Martin in the Fields, the foundation stone of which,
(it being a Royal Parish Church,) was laid, in the King's name, on the 29th of
March 1721, by Bro. Gibb, the
architect, in presence of the Lord Almoner, the surveyor general and a large
company of the brethren.
9. History of Masonry in England during the Reign of King George II.
first Grand Lodge after the accession of George II, to the throne was held at
the Devil Tavern, Temple bar, on the 24th of June 1727,
at which were present, the Earl of Inchquin, Grand Master, his officers and the
Masters and Wardens of forty lodges. At this meeting it was
resolved to extend the privilege of voting in Grand Lodge to Past Grand Wardens,
that privilege having been heretofore restricted to Past Grand Masters, by
resolution of 21st November 1724 and to Past Deputies, by another resolution of
28th February 1726.
[This privilege was certainly a
peculiar favour, for the Grand Lodge, by the old Constitutions, could consist
only of the Masters and Wardens of regular lodges, with the Grand Master and his
Wardens at their head and it had been customary even for these officers, at
their annual election and on other particular occasions, to withdraw and leave
the Masters and Wardens of the lodges to consult together, that no undue
influence might warp their opinion.]
Grand Master having been obliged to take a journey into Ireland before the
expiration of his office, His Lordship transmitted a letter to William Cowper
Esq. his Deputy, requesting him to convene a Grand Lodge for the purpose of
nominating Lord Colerane Grand Master for the ensuing year. A Grand Lodge
was accordingly convened on the 19th of December 1727, when His Lordship was
regularly proposed Grand Master elect and being unanimously approved, on the
27th of the same month was duly invested with the ensigns of his high office at
a grand feast at Mercers Hall in the presence of a numerous company of his
brethren. His Lordship attended two communications during his mastership and
seemed to pay considerable attention to the duties of his office. He
constituted several new lodges and granted a deputation to hold a lodge in St
Bernard's Street in Madrid. At the last Grand
Lodge under his Lordship's auspices, Dr Desaguliers moved, that the ancient
office of Stewards might be revived, to assist the Grand Wardens in preparing
the feast, when it was agreed that their appointment should be annual and the
number restricted to twelve.
Kingston succeeded Lord Colerane and was invested with the ensigns of his high
office on the 27th of December 1728, at a grand feast held a Mercers Hall. His
Lordship's zeal and attachment for the fraternity were very conspicuous, not
only by his regular attendance on the communications, but by his generous
present to the Grand Lodge, of a curious pedestal, a rich cushion with gold
knobs and fringes, a velvet bag and a new jewel set in gold for the use of the
Secretary. During His Lordship's administration, the Society flourished at home
and abroad. Many lodges were constituted and among the rest, deputation was granted
to George Pomfret Esq, authorising him to open a new lodge at Bengal. This
gentlemen first introduced masonry into the English settlement in India, where
it has since made such rapid progress, that, with these few years, upwards of
fifty lodges, have been constituted there, eleven of which are now held in
Bengal. The annual remittances to the charity and public funds of the Society
from this and other factories of the East India Company amount to a considerable
At the Grand Lodge held a Devil
Tavern on the 27th of December 1729, Natheniel Blackerby Esq, the Deputy Grand
Master, being in the chair, in the absence of Lord Kingston, produced a letter
from his Lordship, authorising him to propose the Duke of Norfolk Grand Master
for the ensuing year. This nomination meeting with general approbation, the
usual compliments were paid to His Grace and he was saluted Grand Master elect.
At an assembly and feast at Merchant Taylors Hall on the 29th of January
following His Grace was duly installed, according to ancient form, in the
presence of a numerous and brilliant company of masons. His Grace's absence in
Italy soon after his election, prevented him from attending more than one
communication during his mastership, but the business of the Society was
diligently executed by Mr Blackerly his Deputy, on whom the whole management had
devolved. Among other signal proofs of His Grace's attachment to the Society, he
transmitted from Venice to England the following noble patents for the use of
the Grand Lodge.
Twenty pounds to the charity.
A Large folio book, of the finest writing paper, for the records of Grand Lodge,
richly bound in Turkey and gilt, with a curious frontispiece in vellum,
containing the arms of Norfolk, amply displayed and a Latin inscription of the
family titles, with the arms of masonry emblazoned.
A sword of state for the Grand Master, being the old trusty sword of
Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, which was next wore by his brave
successor in Bernard Duke of Saxe Weimar, with both their names on the blade and
further enriched with the arms of Norfolk in silver on the scabbard.
For these presents His Grace was voted the public thanks of the Society.
is not surprising that masonry should flourish under so respectable a banner.
His Grace appointed a Provincial Grand Lodge at New Jersey in America. A
provincial patent was also made out under his auspices for Bengal. From
this period we may date the commencement of the consequence and reputation of
the Society in Europe, as daily application were made for establishing new
lodges and the most respectable character of the age desired their names to be
enrolled in our records.
Duke of Norfolk was succeeded by Lord Lovel, afterwards Earl of Leicester, who
was installed at Merchers Hall on the 29th of March 1731. His Lordship being at
the time much indisposed, was obliged to withdraw soon after his installation.
Lord Colerane, however, acted a proxy during the feast. On the 14th of May, the
first Grand Lodge after Lord Lovel's election was held at the Rose Tavern in
Marylebone, when it was voted that in future all past Grand Masters and their
deputies shall be admitted members of the quarterly Committees of Charity and
that every committee shall have power to vote five pounds for the relief of any
distressed mason, but no larger sum, without the consent of the Grand Lodge in
Communication being first had and obtained. This resolution is still in force.
the presidency of Lord Lovel, the nobility made a point of honouring the Grand
Lodge with their presence. The Dukes of Norfolk and Richmond, the Earl of
Inchiquin and Lords Colrane and Montagu, with several other persons of
distinction, seldom failed to give their attendance and though the subscriptions
from the lodges were inconsiderable, the Society was enabled to relieve many
worthy objects with small sums. As an encouragement to gentlemen to accept the
office of steward, it was ordered that in future each Steward should have the
privilege of nominating his successor at every annual grand feast.
The most remarkable event of Lord Lovel's administration, was the
initiation of Francis Duke of Lorraine, afterward Emperor of Germany, by
virtue of a deputation from His Lordship, a lodge was held at the Hague, where
His Highness was received into the first two degrees of masonry.
At this lodge, Phillip Stanhope Earl of Chesterfield, then ambassador there,
presided, Mr Strickland esq, acted as Deputy and Mr Benjamin Hadley with a Dutch
brother as Wardens. His Highness coming to England in the same year, was
advanced to the third degree at an occasional lodge convened for the purpose at
Houghton Hall in Norfolk, the seat of Sir Robert Walpole, as was also Thomas
Pelham, Duke of Newcastle.
Society being now in a very flourishing state, deputations were granted from
England for establishing lodges in Russia and Spain.
Viscount Montagu was installed Grand Master at an assembly and feast at Merchant
Taylors Hall on the 19th April 1732. Among the distinguished personages present
on that Occasion were the Dukes of Montagu and Richmond, the Earl of Strathmore
and Lords Colerane, Teynham and Carpetner, Sir
Francis Drake and Sir William Keith Barts and above four
hundred other brethren. At this meeting it was first proposed to have a
country feast and agreed, that the brethren should dine together at
Hampstead on the 24th June, for which purpose cards of invitation were sent to
several of the nobility. On the day appointed, the Grand Master and his
Officers, the Dukes of Norfolk and Richmond, Earl of Strathmore, Lord Carpenter
and Teynham and above a hundred other brethren, met at the Spikes at Hampstead,
where an elegant dinner was provided. Soon after the dinner, the Grand Master
resigned the chair to Lord Teynham and from that time till the expiration of his
office never attended another meeting of the Society. His Lordship granted a deputation for constituting a lodge a Valenciennes
in French Flanders and another for opening a new lodge at the Hotel de Buffy in
Paris. Several other lodges were also constituted
under his Lordship's auspices, but the Society was particularly indebted to
Thomas Barton esq. the Deputy Grand Master, who was very attentive to the duties
of his office and carefully superintended the government of the craft.
The Earl of Stratmore succeeded Lord
Montagu in the office of Grand Master and being in Scotland at the time, was
installed by proxy at an assembly at Mercers Hall on the 7th of June 1733. On
the 13th December, a Grand Lodge was held at the Devil Tavern, at which His
Lordship and his officers, the Earl of Crawford, Sir Robert Mansel, a number of
Past Grand Officers and the Masters and Wardens of fifty three lodges were
present. Several regulations were confirmed at this meeting respecting the
Committee of Charity and it was determined, that all complaints, in future to be
brought before the Grand Lodge, previously be examined by the Committee and from
thence referred to the next Communication.
history of the Society at this period afford no remarkable incident to record.
Some considerable donations were collected and distributed among distressed
masons, to encourage the settlement of a new colony which had been just
established in Georgia in 'America. Lord Strathmore showed every attention to
the duties of his office and regularly attended the meetings of Grand Lodge,
under his auspices the Society flourished at home and aboard and many genteel
presents were received from the East Indies. Eleven
German masons applied for authority to open a new lodge in Hamburgh under the
patronage of the Grand Lodge of England for which purpose his Lordship was
pleased to grant a deputation and soon after, several other lodges were
constituted in Holland under the English banner.
Earl of Strathmore was succeeded by the Earl of Crawford, who was installed at
Mercers Hall on the 30th March 1734. Public affairs attracting His Lordship's
attention, the Communications during his administration were neglected. After
eleven months vacation, however, a Grand Lodge was convened, at which his
Lordship attended and apologized for his long absence. To atone for past
omission, he commanded two communications to be held in little more than six
weeks. The Dukes of Richmond and Buccleugh, the Earl of Balcarras, Lord Weymouth
and other eminent persons, honoured the Grand Lodge with their presence during
the Earl of Crawford's presidency.
most remarkable proceedings of the Society at this period related to a new
edition of the Book of Constitutions, which brother James Anderson was ordered
to prepare for the press and which made its appearance in January 1738,
considerably enlarged and improved.
the new regulation, which took place under the administration of Lord Crawford,
was the following, that if any lodge with the bills of mortality shall cease to
meet during twelve calendar months, the said lodge shall be erased out of the
list and if reinstated, shall lose its former rank. Some
additional privileges were granted to the Stewards, in consequence of an
application for that purpose and to encourage gentlemen to serve the office, it
was agreed, that in future all Grand Officers, the Grand Master excepted, shall
be elected out of that body. A few resolutions also passed respecting illegal
conventions of masons, at which it was reported many persons had been initiated
into masonry on small and unworthy considerations.
Earl of Crawford seems to have made the first encroachment on the jurisdiction
of the Grand Lodge in the city of York, by constituting two lodges within their
district and by granting, without their consent, three deputations, one for
Lancashire, a second for Durham and a third for Northumberland. This
circumstance the Grand Lodge of York highly resented and ever after viewed the
proceeding of the brethren in the metropolis with a jealous eye. All friendly
intercourse ceased and the York masons from that moment considered their
interest distinct from the masons under the Grand Lodge in London.
confirmation of the above fact, I shall here insert a paragraph, copied from the
Book of Constitutions published in 1738. After inserting a list of Provincial
Grand Masters appointed for different places abroad it is thus expressed: 'All
these foreign lodges are under the patronage of our Grand Master of England, but
the old Lodge at York city and the lodges of Scotland, Ireland, France and
Italy, affecting independency, are under their own Grand Masters, though they
have the same constitutions, charges, regulations, &c. for substance, with
their brethren of England and are equally zealous for the Augustan style and the
secrets of the ancient and honourable Fraternity.' Book of Constitutions 1738,
Weymouth succeeded the Earl of Crawford and was installed at Mercers Hall on the
17th April 1735, in presence of the Dukes of Richmond and Athol, the Earls of
Crawford, Winchelsea, Balcarras, Wemys and Loudon, the Marquis of Beamont, Lords
Catheart and Vere Bertie, Sir Cecil Wray and Sir Edward Mansel Barts. and a
splendid company of other brethren. Several
lodges were constituted during Lord Weymouth's presidency and among the rest the
Stewards' Lodges. His Lordship granted a deputation to hold a lodge at the seat
of the Duke of Richmond at Aubigny in France and under his patronage masonry
extended considerably in foreign countries. He issued warrants to open a new
lodge at Lisbon and another at Savannah in Georgia and by his special
appointment, provincial patents were made out for South America and Gambay in
Weymouth never honoured any of the Communications with his presence during his
presidency, but this omission was less noticed on account of the vigilance and
attention of his Deputy, John Ward, esq. after Lord Viscount Dudley and Ward,
who applied with the utmost anxiety to every business which concerned the
interest and well being of the Society.
circumstance occurred while Lord Weymouth was Grand Master, of which it may be
necessary to take notice. The twelve Stewards, with Sir Robert Lawley, Master of
the Stewards' Lodge, at their head, appeared for the first time in their new
badges at a Grand Lodge held at the Devil Tavern on the 11th of December 1735.
On this occasion they were not permitted to vote as individuals, but it being afterwards proposed that they should enjoy this privilege and that the
Stewards' Lodge should in future be represented in Grand Lodge by twelve
members, many lodges objected to the measure as an encroachment on the privilege
of every lodge, which had been previously constituted. When the motion was put
up for confirmation, such a disturbance ensued, that the Grand Lodge was obliged
to be closed before the sentiments of the brethren could be collected on the
subject. Of late years the punctilio has been waived and
the twelve Stewards are now permitted to vote in every Communication as
[It was not till the year 1770, that this privilege was strictly
warranted, when, at a Grand Lodge, on the 7th of February, at the Crown and
Anchor Tavern in the Strand, the following resolution passed. “As the right of
the Members of the Stewards' Lodge in general to attend the Committee of Charity
appears doubtful, no mention of such right being made in the laws of the
Society, the Grand Lodge are of opinion That they have no general right to
attend, but it is hereby resolved, that the Stewards' Lodge be allowed the
privilege of sending a number of brethren equal to any other four lodges, to
every future Committee of Charity and that, as a Master of each private Lodge
only has a right to attend, to make a proper distinction between the Stewards'
Lodge and the other lodges, that the Master and three other members of that
lodge be permitted to attend at every succeeding committee on behalf of the said
lodge.' This resolution, however, was declared not to be intended to deprive any
lodge, which had been previously constituted, of its regular rank and
precedence. Notwithstanding this express provision, a privilege has been lately
granted to the Stewards' Lodge of taking precedence of all the other lodges, the
two oldest not excepted, a measure certainly very incompatible with the original
constitutions and which can never be sanctioned by the rules of the society.
Several lodges have entered protests against it in their private books, which at
some future time may have an effect and probably induce a reinvestigation of the
Earl of Louden succeeded Lord Weymouth and was installed Grand Master at
Fishmongers Hall on the 15th of April 1736. The Dukes of Richmond, the Earls of
Albermarle and Crawford, Lords Harcout Erksine and Southwell, Mr Anstis garter
King at arms, Mr Brady Lion King of arms and a numerous company of other
brethren, were present on the occasion. His Lordship constituted
several lodges and granted three provincial deputation during his presidency,
viz, one for New England another for South Carolina and a third for Cape Coast
Castle in Africa.
Earl of Darnley was elected Grand Master and duly installed at Fishmongers Hall
on the 28th of April 1737, in presence of the Duke of Richmond, the Earls of
Crawford and Wemsys, Lord Gray and many other respectable brethren. The most remarkable event of the His Lordship's administration, was the
initation of the late Frederick prince of Wales, his present majesty's father,
at an occasional lodge convened for the purpose at the palace of Kew, over which
Dr Desaguliers presided as Master.
Lord Baltimore, Col. Lumley,
the Hon. Major Madden and several other brethren, were present. His Royal Highness was advanced to the second degree at the same lodge
and at another lodge. convened at the same place soon after, raised to the
degree of a master mason.
cannot be a better proof of the flourishing state of the Society at this time,
than by adverting to the respectable appearance of the brethren in Grand Lodge,
at which that Grand Master never failed to attend. Upwards of sixty lodges were
represented at every Communication. During
Lord Darnley's administration and more Provincial Patents were issued by him,
than by any of his predecessors. Deputations were granted for Montserrat,
Geneva, the Circle of Upper Saxony, the Coast of Africa, New York and the
Islands of America.
[At this time the authority granted by patent to a Provincial Grand
Master was limited to one year from his first public appearance in that
character within his province, and if, at the expiration of that period, a new
election by the lodges under his jurisdiction did not take place, subject to the
approbation of the Grand Master, the patent was no longer valid. Hence we find,
within the course of a few years, different appointments to the same station,
but the office is now permanent and the sole appointment of the Grand Master.]
Marquis of Carnarvon, afterwards Duke of Chanos, succeeded Lord Darnley in the
office of Grand Master and was duly invested and congratulated at an assembly
and feast hled at Fishmongers Hall on the 27th of April 1738. At this assembly,
the Duke of Richmond, the Earls of Inchiquin, Loudon and Kintore, Lords Colerane
and Gray and a numerous company of other brethren, were present.
Marquis showed every attention to the Society during his presidency and in
testimony of his esteem, presented to the Grand Lodge a gold jewel for the use
of the Secretary, the device, two cross pens in a knot, the knot and points of
the pens being curiously enamelled. Two deputations for the
office Provincial Grand Master were granted by his Lordship, one for the
Caribbean Islands and the other for the West Riding of Yorkshire. This latter
appointment was considered as another encroachment on the jurisdiction of the
Grand Lodge of York and so widened the original breach between the brethren in
the North and the South of England that from thenceforward all future
correspondence between the Grand Lodges totally ceased.
the 15th of August 1738, Frederick the Great. afterwards King of Prussia, was
initiated into masonry, in a lodge in Brunswick, under the Scots constitution,
being at that time Prince Royal. So highly did he approve of the initiation,
that, on his accession to the throne, he commanded a
Grand Lodge to be formed at Berlin and for that purpose obtained a patent from
Edinburgh. Thus was masonry regularly established in Prussia and under that
sanction it has flourished there ever since.
His Majesty's attachment to the Society soon induced him to establish several
new regulations for the advantage of the fraternity and among others he
That no person should be made a mason, unless his character was unimpeachable
and his manner of living and profession respectable.
That every member should pay 25 rix-dollars (or £4. 3s 0d) for the first
degree, 50 rix-dollars (or £8. 6s. 0d) on his being initiated into the second
degree and 100 rix-dollars (or £16. 12s. 0d) on his being made a master
3. That he should remain at least three months in each degree and that
every sum received should be divided by the Grand Treasurer into three parts,
one to defray the expenses of the lodge, another to be applied to the relief of
distressed brethren and the third to be allotted to the poor in general.
other remarkable occurrence is recorded to have happened during the
administration of the Marquis of Carnarvon, except a proposition for
establishing a plan to appropriate a portion of the charity to place out the
sons of masons apprentices, which, after a long debate in Grand Lodge, was
rejected. [Of late years, however, an institution has been established for
educating and clothing the sons of Freemasons in London.]
disagreeable altercations arose in the Society about this period. A number of
dissatisfied brethren separated themselves from the regular lodges and held
meetings in different places for the purpose of initiating persons into masonry,
contrary to the laws of the Grand Lodge. These seceding
brethren taking advantage of the breach, which had been made in the friendly
intercourse between the Grand Lodges of London and York, on being censured for
their conduct, immediately assumed, without authority, the character of York
masons. The measures adopted to check them stopped their progress for some
time, till, taking advantage of the general murmur spread abroad on account of
innovations that had been introduced and which seemed to authorize an omission
of and a variation in the ancient ceremonies, they rose again into notice. This
imprudent measure of the regular lodges offended many old masons, but, through
the mediation of John Ward esq. afterwards Lord Viscount Dudley and Ward,
matters were accommodated and the brethren seemingly reconciled. This, however,
proved only a temporary suspension of hostilities, for the same soon broke out
anew and gave rise to commotions, which afterward materially interrupted the
peace of the Society.
Raymond succeeded the Marquis of Carnarvon in May 1739 and under his Lordship's
auspices the lodges were numerous and respectable. Notwithstanding the
flourishing state of the Society, irregularities continued to prevail and
several worthy brethren, still adverse to the encroachments on the established
system of the institution, were highly disgusted at the proceeding of the
regular lodges. Complaints were preferred at every succeeding committee and the
communications fully employed in adjusting differences and reconciling
animosities. More sessions taking place, it became necessary to pass votes of
censure on the mist refractory and to enact laws to discourage irregular
associations of the fraternity. this brought the power of the Grand Lodge in
question and in opposition to the laws which had been established in that
assembly, lodges were formed with any legal warrant and persons initiated into
masonry for small and unworthy considerations. To disappoint the views of these
deluded brethren and to distinguish the persons initiated by them the Grand
Lodge readily acquiesced in the imprudent measures which the regular masons had
adopted, measures which even the urgency of the case could not warrant. Though
this had the intended effect, it gave rise to a new subterfuge. The brethren who had seceded from the regular lodges immediately
announced independency and assumed the appellation of Ancient Masons. They
propagated an opinion, that the ancient tenets and practices of masonry were
preserved by them and that the regular lodges, being composed of modern masons,
had adopted new plans and were not to be considered as acting under the old
establishment. To counteract the regulations of the Grand Lodge, they instituted
a new Grand Lodge in London, professedly on the ancient system and under that
assumed banner constituted several new lodges.
There irregular proceeding they pretended to justify under feigned sanction of
the Ancient York Constitution and many gentlemen of reputation were introduced
among them, so that their lodges daily increased. Without authority for the
Grand Lodge of York, or form any other established power of masonry, they
persevered in the measures they had adopted, formed committees, held
communications and appointed annual feasts. Under the false appellation of the
York banner, they gained the countenance of the Scotch and Irish masons, who,
placing implicit confidence in the representations made to them, heartily joined
in condemning the measures of the regular lodges in London, as tending, in their
opinion, to introduce novelties into the Society and to subvert the original
plan of the institution. The irregular masons in London, having acquired an
establishment, noblemen of both Kingdoms honoured them with their patronage for
some time and many respectable names and lodges were added to this list. Of late
years the fallacy has been detected and they have not been so successful,
several of their best members have renounced their banner and come under the
patronage of the Grand Lodge of England. It is much to be wished, in that a
general union among all the masons in the Kingdom could effected and we are
happy to hear that such a measure is likely soon to accomplished, through the
mediation of a Royal Brother at present abroad.
the presidency of Lord Raymond, no considerable addition was made to the list of
lodges and communications were seldom honoured with the company of the nobility.
His Lordship granted only one deputation for a provincial Grand Master during
his presidency, viz: for Savoy and Piedmont.
Earl of Kintore succeeded Lord Raymond in April 1740 and in imitation of his
predecessor, continued to discourage irregularities. His
Lordship appointed several provincials, particularly, one for Russia, one for
Hamburgh and the the Circle of Lower Saxony, one for the West Riding of York, in
the room of William Horton esq. Deceased and one for the island of Barbadoes.
Earl of Morton was elected on the 19th of March following and installed with
great solemnity the same day at Haberdashers Hall, in preference of a
respectable company of the nobility, foreign ambassadors and others. Several
seasonable laws were passed during this Lordship's mastership and some
regulations made concerning procession and other ceremonies. His Lordship
presented a staff of office to the Treasurer, of neat workmanship, blue and
tipped with gold and the Grand Lodge resolved, that this officer should be
annually elected and with the Secretary and Sword bearer, be permitted to rank
in future as a member of Grand Lodge. A large cornelian seal, with the arms of
masonry, set in gold, was presented to the Society, at this time, by brother
Vaughan, the Senior Grand Warden and William Vaughan esq. was appointed by his
Lordship, Provincial Grand Master for North Wales.
Ward succeeded the Earl of Morton in April 1742. His Lordship was well
acquainted with the nature and government of the Society having served every
office from the Secretary in a private lodge to that of Grand Master. His
Lordship lost no time in applying effectual remedies to reconcile the
animosities which prevailed, he recommended to his officers, vigilance and care
in their different departments and by the his own conduct, set a noble example
how the dignity of the Society ought to be supported. Many lodges, which were in
a declining state, by his advice, coalesced with other in better circumstances,
some, which had been negligent in their attendance on the Communications, after
proper admonitions were restored to favour and others, which persevered in their
contumacy, were erased out of the list. Thus His Lordship manifested his regard
for the interests of the Society, while his lenity and forbearance were
universally admired. The unanimity and harmony of the lodges seemed to be
perfectly restored under his Lordship's administration. The
freemasons at Antigua built a large hall in that island for their meetings and
applied to the Grand Lodge for liberty to be styled the Great Lodge of St John's
in Antigua, which favour was granted to them in April 1744.
continued two years at the head of the fraternity, during which time he constituted, many lodges and appointed several Provincial Grand Masters,
viz. one for Lancaster, one for North America and three for the island of
Jamaica. He was succeeded by the Earl of Strathmore,
during whose administration, being absent the whole time, the care and
management of the Society devolved on the other Grand Officers, who carefully
studied the general good of the fraternity. His Lordship appointed a Provincial Grand Master for the island of Bermuda.
Cranstoun was elected Grand Master in April 1745 and presided over the
fraternity with great reputation two years. Under his auspices masonry
flourished, several new lodges were constituted and one Provincial Grand Master
was appointed for Cape Breton and Louisburg. By a resolution of the Grand Lodge at this time
it was ordered, that public procession on feast days should be discontinued,
occasioned by some mock processions, which a few disgusted brethren had formed,
in order to burlesque those public appearances.
Byron succeeded Lord Cranstoun and was installed at Drapers Hall on the 30th of
April 1747. The laws of the Committee of Charity were, by his Lordship's order,
revised, printed and distributed among lodges and a handsome, contribution to
the general charity was received from the lodge at Gibraltar. During five years
that His Lordship presided over the fraternity, no diligence was spared to
preserve the privileges of masonry inviolate, to redress grievances and to
relieve distress. When business required his Lordship's attendance in country,
Fotherly Baker esq. his Deputy and Secretary Revis, were particularly attentive
to the business of the Society. the former was distinguished by his
knowledge of the laws and regulations, the latter, by his long and faithful
services. under the auspices of Lord Byron, provincial
patents were issued for Denmark and Norway, Pennsylvania, Minorcaand New York.
the 20th March, 1752, Lord Carysfort accepted the office of Grand Master. The
good effects of his Lordship's application to the real interests of the
fraternity soon became visible, by the great increase of the public fund. No
Grand Officer ever took more pains to preserve, or was more attentive to
recommend, order and decorum. He was ready, on all occasions, to visit the
lodges in person and to promote harmony among the members. Dr. Manningham, his
Deputy, was no less vigilant in the execution of his duty. He constantly visited
the lodges in his Lordship's absence and used every endeavour to cement union
among the brethren. The whole proceedings of this active officer were conducted
with prudence and his candor and affability gained him universal esteem. The
Grand Master's attachment to the Society was so obvious, that the brethren, in
testimony of their gratitude for his Lordship's great services, reelected him on
the 3d of April 1753 and during his presidency, provincial patents were issued for Gibraltar, the
Bahama Islands, New York, Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, Sarkand Mann, also for
Cornwall and the counties of Worcester, Gloucester, Salop, Monmouth and
this time the Society in Scotland appears to have been in a flourishing state.
Under the auspices of George Drummond esq., the Grand Master of the Masons in
that Kingdom, the lodges had considerably increased in numbers. This gentleman
had thrice served the office of Lord Provost of Edinburgh and being at the head
of the senate in that city, he was anxious to promote every scheme which could
add to the consequence and splendour of the metropolis of his native country.
With this view he planned and afterwards completed, that elegant range of
buildings called THE NEW EXCHANGE OF EDINBURGH, the foundation stone of which he
laid on the 13th of September 1753, as Grand Master. An event so remarkable in
the annals of Masonry justly merits attention and cannot fail to render an
account of a ceremony so splendid and conducted with so much regularity,
interesting to every brother who has the honour of the Society at heart.
in the morning of the day appointed for the celebration of this ceremony, a
magnificent triumphal arch, in the true Augustan style, was opened to public
view, it was erected at the entrance leading towards the place where the
foundation stone of the intended building was to be laid. In the niches between
the columns on each side of the entrance were two figures, representing GEOMETRY
and ARCHITECTURE, each as large as life. On the frieze of the entablature, which
was of the Corinthian order, were the following words, QUOD FELIX FAUSTUMQUE
SIT, That it may be happy and prosperous. On the middle panel of the attic base,
placed over the entablature, was represented the GENIUS of EDINBURGH, in a
curule chair, under a canopy, on her right hand stood a group of figures
representing the Lord provost, magistrates and council, in their robes, on her
left was another group representing the noblemen and gentlemen employed in the
direction of the intended structure. In front was placed the Grand Master,
offering a plan of the Exchange, attended by several of his brethren properly
clothed. The whole was decorated with laurels, bays and other evergreens,
interspersed with festoons of flowers.
three o'clock in the afternoon, the several lodges, with their Masters at their
head, met at Mary's Chapel, in Niddry's Wind and at half past three moved in
procession from the chapel, the city guard covering the rear:
Operative Masons not belonging to any lodge present.
A band of French horns.
The lodges present arranged as follows:
military Lodge belonging to General Johnson's regiment.
Scots Lodge in Canongate.
from Leith Lodge.
of Journeymen Masons.
and Leith, Leith and Canongate Lodge.
the brethren properly clothed and the Masters and Wardens in the jewels of their
respective lodges, with their badges of dignity, formed the left rank of each
Gentlemen Masons belonging to foreign lodges.
A band of Hautbois.
The Golden Compasses, carried by an operative Mason.
Three Grand Stewards, with rods.
The Grand Secretary, Grand Treasurer and Grand Clerk.
Three Grand Stewards, with rods.
The Golden Square, Level and Plumb, carried by three operative Masons.
A band of French horns.
Three Grand Stewards, with rods.
The Grand wardens.
The Cornucopia and Golden Mallet, carried by an officer of the Grand Lodge and
an operative Mason.
The GRAND MASTER, supported by a Past Grand Master and the present Substitute.
procession was closed with a body of operative Masons and the whole brethren,
amounting exactly to 672, walked uncovered.
the head of Niddry's Wind the cavalcade was received by 150 of the military and
a company of grenadiers, drawn up in two lines, under arms, who escorted the
procession, one half of the grenadiers marching in front and the other half in
the rear, with bayonets fixed. As the procession passed the city guard, a
company was drawn out, with the proper officers at their head, who saluted the
Grand Master with military honours, drums beating and music playing. When the
procession reached the Parliament Close, the troops formed a line, as did also
the Masons within that line. The Grand Master and the Officers of the Grand
Lodge then made a stop at the north west corner of the close and despatched a
message to the Council House, to acquaint the magistrates that the brethren were
ready to receive them, on which the Lord Provost, magistrates and council, in
their robes, preceded by the city officers, with the sword and mace, accompanied
by several of the gentlemen in the direction of the intended buildings,
proceeded through the lines formed by the soldiers and the Masons, when the
Grand Master, properly supported as before, preceded by his officers and having
his jewels borne before him, marched to the place where the ceremony was to be
performed and passed through the triumphal arch erected for the occasion, the
lodges following according to seniority. On the west side of the place where the
stone was to be laid was erected a theatre, covered with tapestry and decked
with flowers, for the Lord Provost, magistrates, council and attendants, on the
east was erected another theatre for the Grand Master and his officers, on which
was set a chair for the Grand Master. Before the chair was a table covered with
tapestry, on which were placed two silver vessels, filled with wine and oil, the
golden jewels and the cornucopia, which had been carried in the procession. The
Masters, Wardens and brethren of the several lodges were then arranged in
galleries properly fitted up for the occasion.
ceremony of laying the stone now commenced. By order of the Substitute Grand
Master, the stone was flung in a tackle and after three regular stops, let down
gradually to the ground, during which the Masonic anthem was sung, accompanied
by the music, all the brethren joining in the chorus. The Grand Master,
supported as before, preceded by his officers and the operative Masons carrying
the jewels, then descended from the theatre to the spot, where the stone lay and
passed through a line formed by the officers of the Grand Lodge. The Substitute
Grand Master deposited in the stone, in cavities made for the purpose, three
medals with the following devices: On one side, was the effigies of the Grand
Master in profile, vested with the ribbon officially worn by him and in front, a
view of the Royal Infirmary, with the following inscription,
DRUMMOND, ARCHITECT. SCOT.
MAGIS EDIN. TER COS.
DRUMMOND, of the Society of Free Masons in Scotland Grand Master, thrice Provost
of Edinburgh. On the reverse was a perspective view of the Exchange, on which
was inscribed in the circle. VRBI EXORNANDÆ CIVIVMQUE COMMODITATI, For adorning
the City and the convenience of its Inhabitants and underneath,
PER SCOTIAM ARCHITECTONICUS
first stone of the New Exchange of Edinburgh being laid, the brotherhood of
Masons through Scotland ordered this to be struck, 13th September 1753. The
other medals contained the effigies as above and on the reverse the Masons'
Arms, inclosed within the collar of St. Andrew, with the following inscription:
THE LORD IS ALL OUR TRUST.
The former Grand Master and the Substitute retiring, two operative
Masons came in their place and assisted the Grand Master to turn over the stone
and lay it in its proper bed, with the inscription under most. [The
inscription on translation reads as follows,
[GEORGE DRUMMOND, of the Society of
Free-Masons in Scotland, Grand Master, thrice Provost of Edinburgh, three
hundred brothers Masons attending, in presence of many persons of distinction,
the Magistrates and Citizens of Edinburghand of people of every rank an
innumerable Multitudeand all applauding, for the conveniency of the inhabitants
of Edinburghand the public ornament, as the beginning of the new Buildings, laid
this stone, WILLIAM ALEXANDER being Provost, on the 13th September 1753, of the
Æra of Masonry 5753and of the reign of GEORGE II. King of Great Britain the
Grand Master then taking his station at the east of the stone, with the
Substitute on the left and his Wardens in the west, the operative who carried
the square delivered it to the Substitute, who presented it to the Grand Master
and he having applied it to that part of the stone which was square, returned it
back to the operative. The operative who carried the plumb then delivered it to
the Substitute, who presented it also to the Grand Master and he having applied
it to the edges of the stone, holding it upright, delivered it back to the
operative. In like manner the operative, who carried the level, delivered it to
the Substitute and he presented it to the Grand Master, who applied it above the
stone in several positions and returned it back to the operative. The mallet was
then presented to the Grand Master, who gave three knocks upon the stone, which
was followed by three huzzas from the brethren. An anthem was then sung,
accompanied by the music, during which the cornucopia and the two silver vessels
containing the wine and oil were brought down to the stone. The cornucopia was
delivered to the Substitute and the vessels to the Wardens. The anthem being
concluded, the Substitute presented the cornucopia to the Grand Master, who
turned out the ears of corn upon the stone. The silver vessels were then
delivered by the Wardens to the Substitute and by him presented to the Grand Master, who poured the contents upon the stone, saying, 'May the
bountiful hand of Heaven supply this city with abundance of corn, wine, oil and
all the other conveniences of life'
This was succeeded by three huzzas, after which an anthem was sung. The Grand
Master then repeated these words: 'As we have now laid this foundation stone, may
the Grand Architect of the universe, of his kind providence, enable us to carry
on and finish the work which we have now begun, may he be a guard to this place
and the city in general and may he preserve it from decay and ruin to the latest
posterity.' The ceremony was concluded with a short prayer for the
sovereign, the senate of the city, the Fraternity of Masons and all the people,
the music was resumed and the Grand Master returned to his chair, amid the
plaudits of the brethren.
Grand Master then addressed the Lord provost, magistrates and council, in an
appropriate speech, in which he thanked them for the honour which they had done
him in witnessing the act of laying the foundation stone of the intended
structure and expressed his earnest wish that they and their successors might be
happy instruments to forward the great and good work which was now begun and
offered so fair a prospect of success and he sincerely hoped that it might add,
not only to the ornament and advantage of the city of Edinburgh, but be the
means of ensuring to them lasting honour and transmitting their memories to the
latest posterity. He next addressed the undertakers of the work on the
importance of the trust reposed in them and recommended diligence and industry
to all the workmen who might be employed under them.
magistrates then took their leave and the brethren resumed the procession to the
palace of Holy rood House, escorted by the military as before, amidst an immense
crowd of spectators. On arriving at the palace, the Grand Master, in the name of
himself and his brethren, returned his most grateful acknowledgments to the
commanding officer of the troops for the assistance, which he had given. The
brethren then entered the inner court of the palace and formed a square, to
receive the Grand Master and his officers with all due honour, who, followed by
the lodges according to seniority, proceeded to the great gallery, where an
elegant entertainment was provided and the greatest harmony prevailed. At nine
o'clock in the evening the company broke up.
was the regularity observed throughout the ceremony of the day, that,
notwithstanding the crowds of people who were collected on the occasion, the
whole was concluded without a single accident.
Marquis of Carnarvon (afterwards Duke of Chandos) succeeded Lord Carysfort in
the office of Grand Master of England in March, 1754. He began his
administration by ordering the Book of Constitutions to be reprinted, under the
inspection of a committee, consisting of the Grand Officers and some other
respectable brethren. The Grand Master's zeal and attention to the true
interests of the Society were shown on every occasion. He presented to the Grand
Lodge a large silver jewel, gilt, for the use of the Treasurer, being cross keys
in a knot, enamelled with blue and gave several other proofs of his attachment.
after the election of the Marquis of Carnarvon, the Grand Lodge took into
consideration a complaint against certain brethren, for assembling, without any
legal authority, under the denomination of ancient masons and who, as such,
considered themselves independent of the Society and not subject to the laws of
the Grand Lodge, or to the control of the Grand Master. Dr. Manningham, the
Deputy Grand Master, pointed out the necessity of discouraging such meetings, as
being contrary to the laws of the Society and openly subversive of the
allegiance due to the Grand Master. On this representation, the Grand Lodge
resolved that the meeting of any brethren under the denomination of Masons,
other than as brethren of the ancient and honourable Society of Free and
Accepted Masons, established upon the universal system, is inconsistent with the
honour and interest of the Craft and a high insult on the Grand Master and the
whole body of Masons. In consequence of this resolution, fourteen brethren, who
were members of a Lodge held at the Ben Johnson's head, in Pelham-street,
Spitalfields, were expelled the Society and that lodge was ordered to be erased
from the list.
preceding Grand Master granted so many provincial deputations as the Marquis of
Carnarvon. On the 7th of October 1755, his Lordship appointed a Provincial Grand
Master for Durham and soon after a very respectable Lodge was constituted at
Sunderland under his Lordship's auspices. In less than two years
the following patents were issued by his Lordship, 1. for South Carolina, 2. for
South Wales, 3. for Antigua, 4. for all North America where no former Provincial
was appointed, 5. for Barbadoes and all other his majesty's islands to the
windward of Guadaloupe, 6. for St. Eustatius, Cubaand St. Martin's, Dutch Caribbean
islands in America, 7. for Sicily and the adjacent islands, 8. for all
his majesty's dominions in Germany, with the power to choose their successors
and 9. for the county palatine of Chester and the city and county of Chester.
The greater part of these appointments appear to have been mere honorary grants
in favour of individuals, few of them having been attended with any real
advantage to the Society.
Marquis of Carnarvon continued to preside over the Fraternity till the 18th of
May 1757, when he was succeeded by Lord Aberdour, during whose mastership the
Grand Lodge voted, among other charities, the sum of fifty pounds to be sent to
Germany, to be distributed among such of the soldiers as were Masons in Prince
Ferdinand's army, whether English, Hanoverians, or Hessians and this sum was
soon after remitted to General Kingsley for the intended purpose.
were the principal proceedings of the Fraternity during the reign of George II.,
who, on the 5th of October 1760, expired at his palace at Kensington, in the
77th year of his age and the 34th of his reign.
period seems to have been the golden era of Masonry in England the sciences were
cultivated and improved, the royal art was diligently propagated and true
architecture clearly understood, the Fraternity were honoured and esteemed, the
lodges patronized by exalted characters and charity, humanity and benevolence
appeared to be the distinguishing characteristics of Masons.