My masonic pedigree
[ The learned author is a Past
Master of Ohio Lodge of Research and is the Editor of its Transactions. He has
in this article explained the fifteen points in which majority of brethren have
to be educated. No doubt this article has been prepared with reference to the
brethren in United States. Excepting the few points, which have particular
relevance to our brethren in the United States, the other points have universal
application. His advice, we are sure, if heeded, will make us better
masons. Please read on....]
masonic pedigree, while not particularly unusual, has resulted in many
discussions with fellow masons concerning the origins of Freemasonry and the
reasons for variations in masonic ritual. A member of the Order of DeMolay since
I was 14, I petitioned for the degrees as soon as my twenty-first birthday
drew near. As a Lewis,
I was allowed to submit my petition before coming of age, and I was initiated
less than a month following my twenty-first birthday. Being on leave from the
U.S. Navy, I was initiated and passed in my home lodge, but was raised as a
courtesy candidate in another state.
a lodge I visited one night, an officer of many years standing noticed that I
would be helping out with the degree work and introduced himself to me. He asked
about my home lodge and I told him about my receiving the first two degrees in
Ohio, but the third in Virginia. He replied that he’d originally come from
another state, where the work was quite a bit different than Ohio’s, and how
this sometimes presented a challenge to him in his ritual work, even though
he’d been in Ohio now a number of years. I said I had the same problem, having
been active in Virginia for two years before getting out of the Navy. And then
it happened. Confident and self-assured, the brother said, “Oh, that’s
had heard variations of this comment many times, usually along the lines of,
“Oh, they’re Ancient, Free & Accepted.” These remarks had
always troubled me, so I answered, “Well, Southern Jurisdiction only applies
to Scottish Rite.” To which the brother gave the condescending response,
“Don’t kid yourself, son. All Grand Lodges have different rituals.”
Stunned, I was just about to follow up when the Master called for the brethren
have been advised by brother masons that Southern/Northern Jurisdiction and F.
& A.M. designations account for differences in lodge or ritual practices on
more occasions than I care to remember. Usually such pronouncements are made
with a gravity which brooks neither disagreement nor discussion. Knowing the
importance of looking for the good in things, I try to remind myself that I have
yet to hear anyone tell me “that Masonry in its present form started in remote
it or not, this does happen. Bro. Harry Mendoza, a respected masonic historian,
gave a talk at an English lodge once. As he tells it,
My paper dealt with some of the phrases we use today – and one of them was
‘from time immemorial.’ I said that Freemasonry as we know it today
stretched back no more than about 600 years, though some would argue 250 years.
A Grand Officer present – of some years’ seniority – stood up and said
that he couldn’t really allow that; I was misleading the brethren. Masonry, he
declared firmly, was of time immemorial; it went right back to the time
of Noah – and there were degrees to prove it!”
believe such statements reveal a need for more-focused masonic education
programs, programs aimed at basic misconceptions about the Craft, its structure,
and its history. What should be the goals of such a program? Several come to
mind, though in no particular order.
Our Origins – Separating Fact from Fiction
1. Compare and contrast traditional or ritualistic
history, historical theories, and scholarly historical research.
Traditional/ritualistic history dates Masonry from Adam, and includes the story
of Hiram Abif and the Lost Word. The story of Hiram Abif is not biblical, nor
does everything in Freemasonry come from the Bible, as I have heard claimed more
than once. Sources of traditional history include such things as the Old Charges
and the ritual.
Traditional history is not history in the true sense of the word, being for the
most part fanciful products of the imaginations of various writers. When found
in the ritual, such accounts are meant to teach concepts of morality, not to
give an accurate portrayal of past events.
theories, only sometimes supported by valid research and investigation, range
from the operative-speculative transition theory, championed by Robert Freke
Gould and Harry Carr, to the monastic inner sancta theory, proposed by Cyril
Both of these are theories about the origin of speculative Freemasonry. It
should be stressed that no one today really knows how the Fraternity originated,
but the transition theory seems to have taken on a life of its own, and is too
often treated as the last word on the subject.
It should be stressed to our students that these are, but theories of origin and
not established facts.
historical research requires reliable methods of investigation and inquiry.
Such works identify opinions and theories as such, provide citations for source
materials, rely on direct evidence, where possible instead of hearsay, do not
make unwarranted pronouncements or implied assumptions and are not subject to
credible attack as to their methodology.
education officers should both understand for themselves and clearly identify to
others, which portions of a program are based on fact, theory, or traditional
history. Theories based on poor scholarship should be discouraged in official
education programs, or at least properly identified. Let us avoid teaching
parables as history.
about masonic research, particularly about the publications of The Masonic
Service Association, Quatuor Coronati Lodge, the Scottish Rite Research
Society, the Masonic Book Club, and other reputable sources. Advise masons where
to locate masonic books, providing names, addresses, and telephone numbers for
various publishers. Indicate that the popularity of a book (e.g., Born in
Blood) or writer (e.g., Arthur Edward Waite)
indicates neither soundness of the theories espoused, validity of the
conclusions made, nor qualifications of the author. A one-year subscription to The
Short Talk Bulletin should be given to every mason with his first dues card.
A new mason could do a lot worse than to begin his study of Freemasonry by
reading Carl H. Claudy.
Organization and Regularity
3. Instruct masons on the structure of American Freemasonry. Make sure new
masons understand that although there is a place in the Fraternity for the
concordant and appendant bodies, the Grand Lodge is the ultimate
governing authority over the Craft,
there is no higher degree than that of Master Mason and the attraction of the
side degrees should be viewed in its proper perspective.
Impress upon masons that the jurisdictional arrangements of the Scottish Rite
and other such bodies have no relevance to U.S. Grand Lodges nor to U.S. Craft
(blue lodge) Masonry in general. Furthermore, make it clear that neither the
location of a state on the map nor the designation of a Grand Lodge as F. &
A.M. or A.F. & A.M. has any bearing on Grand Lodge regularity. Nor do such
designations of themselves reveal anything about a Grand Lodge’s parentage or
4. Explain that the U.S. structure of Masonry does not obtain in other
countries. Explain that in some countries the Craft degrees are under the
jurisdiction of the Scottish Rite (or Ancient and Accepted Rite), while in
others (e.g., Sweden), the Grand Lodge directly controls advancement to
degrees beyond that of Master Mason. Explain that advancement in many parts of
the world to the next degree (starting with the Fellowcraft) is neither fast nor
automatic, the candidate having much more study to do than is usual in the
United States. Further, explain that some Grand Lodges (e.g., Sweden)
limit masonic membership to Christians, though this is not the case in the U.K
5. Explain that Freemasonry in the
United States is not a Christian organization and that a brother called on to
give a non-ritual prayer at a masonic function should not use words such as
“In Christ’s Name” as doing so could well be offensive to non-Christian
masons who may be present.
It would seem the better path to keep non-ritual prayers on a basis “in which
all men agree” as the old charges suggest.
Tell of the controversies which gave
rise to the Antients Grand Lodge, which then labeled the first Grand Lodge as
“Moderns,” what the basic causes of the difficulties were, and how the two
Grand Lodges settled their differences and formed the United Grand Lodge of
Explain that masons traveling to foreign countries may expect to find different
passwords in use (including the S.),
as well as different sets of working tools, different ways of presenting the
legend of the third degree, different GHSs, and other general differences around
the world, particularly between the more popular post-Union rituals used in
Britain and the Webb rituals used in the United States.
Explain that in some parts of the world (and the U.S., too) the Craft degrees
are worked using rituals propounded by the Scottish Rite.
Discuss the “Baltimore” Conventions of 1842, 1843, and 1847 and how they
affected American Freemasonry,
in part by launching the trend for lodges to transact business only on the third
degree and curtailing development of a general Grand Lodge for the United
Prince Hall Masonry.
Point out that black and Prince Hall masons are not necessarily irregular, that
irregular black and Prince Hall masons are not irregular because of race, that a
black mason is not necessarily a Prince Hall mason, and that many black masons
belong to lodges chartered by so-called “white” grand lodges.
Irregularity stems from a Grand Lodge’s pedigree, not the racial makeup of its
lodges, and is, in any case, always judged subjectively.
Explain in general terms the history of masonic ritual.
The original masonic degrees
were Apprentice and
Fellow. The Master Mason degree was more or less
settled in the 1720s
and the Royal Arch arose in the 1730s,
but all other degrees are more recent
innovations and arose outside of the Craft Masonry setting.
Grand Lodges have
sovereign authority to determine what Craft rituals will be used in their
Grand Lodge may specify a particular ritual, or may leave the matter up
to local lodges
and simply set general guidelines. The designations “F. & A.M.,” “A.F. & A.M.,” “F.A.A.M.,” or otherwise
are irrelevant as far as ritual is concerned.
9. Explain the origin of the words, “So mote it be,” being Middle
English for “So may it
be” or “So be it,” and appearing twice in the Regius Manuscript.
Provide new masons
with a properly translated copy of the Regius MS and suggest that they
Hamill’s book, The History of English Freemasonry.
Explain that masonic ritual is supposed to make sense spiritually and
logically or historically. Take, for example, the Pythagorean theorem,
which relates the
lengths of the sides of a right triable to its hypotenuse, stated
algebraically as a2+b2=c2.
historians dispute whether Pythagoras himself
ever posited the theorem
named after him or devised a proof of it. But in either case, the
Babylonians made use of
the theory by about 2,000 B.C., some 1,400 years before Pythagoras was
survives of Pythagoras’ work, although the “bride’s chair
proof” or “proof walking on
stilts” as it has been called, popularized by Euclid and shown on
masonic tracing boards,
is as good a representation as any of how the early Greeks would have
The proof is used as the Past Master symbol by our English brethren. Nor is
Pythagoras famous for saying “Eureka,” meaning “I have found it.”
It was Archimedes
who gave this exclamation when, sitting in his bath, he realized how to
whether the crown of Hieron II, King of Syracuse, was pure gold by
immersing it in
water to discover its specific gravity. Pythagoras was not, of course,
“raised to the
sublime degree of Master Mason.” There was no such thing during his
Foster an interest in quality ritual and encourage establishment of
lodges of instruction where lodges of instruction could be especially helpful: demonstrating
proper salutes and teaching correct pronunciation and delivery.
The cipher ritual is not a substitute for rehearsals and must not be
used as a crutch. A
lodge of instruction could, by bringing together members of several
lodges to practice
jointly, promote exchange of good ideas and discourage unnecessary
practices and bad
habits. Ideas abound: teach deacons and stewards how to hold and carry a
teach chaplains how to time their prayers and direct them to the
candidate; teach proper
voice techniques; teach speakers how to deal with unexpected situations (e.g.,
improperly prepared EA candidate being presented to the Master). There
are two areas
When I joined the Navy, I was told that salutes become sloppier in direct
the rank of the officer giving them. In Freemasonry, however, where our
should be on “who best can work
and best agree” (i.e., make
their wall level and plumb),
just the opposite should be true. Unfortunately it is not.
signs should be
given in a crisp, military manner, and accompanied by appropriate
placement of the feet.
Hands should be completely flat for all due-guards and signs, except for
the moving FC sign. For
some unknown reason, the FC degree presents special problems. There is a
disturbing tendency in some lodges to give the FC due-guard with the one
arm extended. This is not correct! The resulting gesture has no place in a
masonic lodge. All signs,
including the FC sign, being p. signs, represent a ctg m and not a
plg m. We are not
talking dolls, nor are we throwing salt or catching flies.
Word pronunciation and delivery
am reminded of the story of the new mason, who went home and told his wife of
the three types of men to be found in a masonic lodge, the walkers, the talkers
and the holy men. The walkers walk around the lodge; the talkers talk while the
walkers walk; and the holy men (they’re the ones with aprons trimmed in
purple), they sit with their heads in their hands saying, “Oh mi god.”
course it’s easy to preach from behind; its quite another when you’re
sitting in the East with all eyes upon you. We all acquire bad habits – some
very dear to the heart. In fact, certain passages sound better with a
word pronounced, shall we say, “with improvement.” For example, I much
All of which are wrong. Mispronouncing the word “divest” is
particularly popular because emphasizing the first syllable draws attention to
the distinction between investing and divesting.
Which proves the point that we must consider the message being conveyed not only
by the words but by their delivery as well. Correct pronunciation is only a
beginning, but it is a necessary one.
moving on, allow me to suggest three areas where a zero tolerance policy should
be employed and absolute perfection demanded, the apron presentation, the
“G” Lecture, and the presentation and description of the FPOF. These
areas are the hearts of their degrees. I believe that anything less than
in their presentation is an insult both to the candidate and to the lodge.
let’s pronounce the words right. When they’re said wrong, the speaker comes
across as uncaring and unprepared. Let’s understand the meaning, too, because
correct pronunciation will not save a speaker, who doesn’t know what he’s
word usages (“stone,” “bourne,” “smote”) are commonly heard only in
masonic ritual. I would like to touch on these and the more common errors, which
so often arise, but I must leave a more thorough study for the future. A number
of problem words are listed in the Appendix.--- So much for ritual matters.
Advise masons that Freemasonry is not
anti-Catholic although, depending whom you ask, the opposite may be true.
In 1974 Cardinal Seper wrote to the bishops,
stating that “The Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith . . .
has ruled that Canon 2335 no longer bars a Catholic from membership of masonic
groups. . . . And so a Catholic who joins the Freemasons is excommunicated only
if the policy and actions of the Freemasons in his area are known to be hostile
to the Church. . . .” But there have been developments since
then. In 1983, a new Code of Canon Law was published, wherein Canon 2335 was
replaced by Canon 1374, which only forbade membership in organizations which
“plot against the Church” and removed the penalty of automatic
excommunication, replacing it with “a just penalty.” This is in conformity
with Cardinal Seper’s interpretation. Shortly before the new Code was
published, however, the Sacred Congregation, under a new Prefect, issued a
pronouncement that Canon 1374 did not really affect the original policy.
Although the pronouncement nullifies Cardinal Seper’s earlier ruling, it was
issued prior to the effective date of the new canon. Accordingly, some dioceses
are holding that the canon supersedes the ruling and are on that basis
permitting masonic membership.
point is that masonry is neither “for” nor “against” any faith or
denomination. The repeated need to say so is deeply troubling as it reveals, at
best, questions arising out of on little or no capacity for independent thought.
13. Explain that the American
Revolution was not a masonic plot or conspiracy,
nor was the Boston Tea Party and suggest that masons curb their appetite for
these stories. Certainly masons participated in all these events, but if
Masonry as an organization were to have done so it would be more cause for shame
than jubilation. After all, General Arnold was also a freemason.
to the Gullible – and the Hateful
Discuss the Morgan Affair, and explain the danger of ignoring anti-masonic
sentiments. Masons are charged not to let their zeal for the Institution lead
them into argument with those who through ignorance may ridicule it. But
anti-masons are not acting only out of ignorance. Their attacks are not ridicule
but weapons specifically employed to destroy society’s greatest champion of
freedom of conscience and universal morality. Masons should be strongly
encouraged to study Ed King’s website at http://masonicinfo .com. It provides a
wealth of information about the anti-mason and his motivations.
that Freemasonry isn’t about secrets, and that “It’s a secret” is an
response to general questions about the Craft. Anti-masons like to attack the
strawman of masonic “secrecy,” attempting thereby to neatly avoid the fact
that our organization, like any other, is entitled to its privacy. As if we
should be ashamed of restricting our meetings to members only.
sure masons understand that “the real secrets in Masonry are personal
insights. They are secret not because we are pledged to conceal them, but
because they cannot be truly communicated from one person to another.”
Anti-masons who think they’ve done something clever by publishing what they
believe to be our “secrets” are truly a sad lot. An unexpected writer
(Giovanni Casanova) put it this way:
Men who plan only to be accepted as Freemasons with the purpose of coming to
know the secret of the Order run great risk of growing old under the
ever attaining their object. There is a secret, but it is so inviolable,
that it has never been told nor confided to anyone. Those who grasp at the superficiality
believe that the secret consists in words, signs and grips, or that in
the final analysis it
is the grand word of the last degree. A mistake!”
who discovers the secret of Freemasonry, for they never know where they are
finding it, will not arrive at that knowledge by reason of frequenting lodges.
He gains it only by the strength of reflecting, of reasoning, of comparing, and
of deducing. He will not confide it to his best friend in Freemasonry, for he
knows that if that brother does not find it for himself as did he, the friend
will not have the talent to extract the means to do so from what shall be said
in his ear. * * *
who by dishonest indiscretion make no scruple of revealing, what is done in
lodge have never revealed the essential, for, they do not know it, and if they
have not known, truly they cannot reveal.
Unfortunately, masonic history and many of the matters above
are also not learned by “frequenting lodges.” But unlike the secrets of the
apron, square, compasses and trowel, masonic education can be taught –
and we are the ones charged to do so.
hundred years ago, an anonymous priest, for his masonic education project,
This good lord loved the craft full well,
and proposed to strengthen it, every dell;
For diverse faults that in the craft he found,
he set about into the land
all the masons of the craft,
to come to him full even straghfte [straight].
to amend these defaults all,
by good counsel, if it might fall,
assembly then he could let make,
of diverse lords in their state --
earls, and barons also;
knights, squires, and many mo.
the great burgesses of that city,
they were there all in their degree.)
were there each one algate [everywhere, always],
to ordain for these masons’ estate --
they sought by their wit,
how [that] they might govern it:”
and fyftene poyntys þer
fifteen points are nothing compared to the timeless message of the Regius
Manuscript. But I flatter myself that my points also have their place. I’ve
been told that the trouble with masonic education of this type is that it never
reaches the brethren who need it most – that is, the ones who believe that
their long tenure in lodge equals knowledge of the Craft. This is alarming,
because as the saying goes, “If you think education is expensive, try
ignorance.” These harm us and no one else, and cry out for good counsel to be
whispered in a brother’s ear.
know that I’m preaching to the choir. But who else is there to call on? A more
aggressive masonic education program will work – if we work it. It is
essential to raise the level of knowledge on which the average mason stands. I
pray the Craft to correct these misconceptions wherever found, to examine the
content of our education programs, to continue being leaders and shining a
brighter light into the darkness of unconsidered speculation and hearsay which
too often passes for knowledge in our mystic circle.
bibliography has been incorporated into the notes.
The author thanks the following persons for
their comments and suggestions, all of which have
contributed to this work. In alphabetical order --
Wor. Bro. James G. Bennie, WM, Lodge Southern Cross No. 44, F. & A.M.,
Wor. Bro. Greg M. Glur, PM, Shiloh Lodge No. 1, A.F. & A.M., North
Bro. Karl-Gunnar Hultland, FC, Saints John Lodge Ultima Thule, Swedish
Order of Freemasons
Lisa J. Kiser, Ph.D., Professor of Old English and Middle English
Literature, English Linguistics, and History of the English Language, The
Ohio State University
Wor. Bro. Den Robinson, PM, Sant Beuno Lodge No. 6733, A.F. & A.M.,
Wor. Bro. Richard D. Snow, PM, New England Lodge No. 4, F. & A.M.,
Ohio; PM, Ohio Lodge of Research
Wor. Bro. Timothy B. Strawn, PM, New England Lodge No. 4, F. & A.M.,
Wor. Bro. Robert L. Tucker, PM, Adoniram Lodge No. 517, F. & A.M.,
Wor. Bro. Louis S. VanSlyck, PM, Trinity Lodge No. 710, F. & A.M. of
Ohio; PM, Ohio Lodge of Research